Operation Blue Star Book Pdf
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- Operation Blue Star 1984 Book PDF
- Operation Blue Star 1984 by Tariq Ismail Sagar Novel PDF Download
- Operation Blue Star: The True Story
Operation Blue Star 1984 Book PDF
Operation Blue Star was the code name of an Indian military action which was carried out between 1 and 10 June, , in order to capture the Sikh leader Jarnail Singh Bhindranwale and his followers hidden inside the buildings of Harmandir Sahib Golden Temple complex in Amritsar , Punjab. The decision to launch the attack rested with Prime Minister Indira Gandhi ,  who, according to retired general S.
Sinha , had been considering the operation for more than 18 months prior, authorizing army preparation for it long before any insurgents were in the complex. Indian intelligence agencies had reported that three prominent figures in the operation, Shabeg Singh , a court-martialed Indian Army officer who fought in major battles for India, Balbir Singh, and Amrik Singh , referred to in reports as "prominent heads of the Khalistan movement," had made at least six trips each to Pakistan between and Many Pakistani agents also followed the smuggling routes in the Kashmir and Kutch region of Gujarat , with plans to commit sabotage.
However, in the Soviets had launched Operation Kontakt, which was based on a forged document purporting to contain details of the weapons and money provided by the ISI to Sikh militants who wanted to create an independent country. On 1 June , after no attempts at any negotiations, Indira Gandhi rejected the Anandpur Resolution and ordered the army to launch Operation Blue Star, simultaneously attacking scores of Sikh temples across Punjab. The official stance of the army was that warnings were made to facilitate the evacuation of pilgrims but that no surrender or release occurred by June 5 at PM.
A clean-up operation codenamed Operation Woodrose was also initiated throughout Punjab. The army had underestimated the firepower possessed by the militants, whose armaments included Chinese-made rocket-propelled grenade launchers with armour-piercing capabilities.
Tanks and heavy artillery were used to attack the militants, who responded with anti-tank and machine-gun fire from the heavily fortified Akal Takht. After a hour firefight, the army gained control of the temple complex. The official casualty figures for the army were 83 dead and injured; however, Rajiv Gandhi disclosed in September of that soldiers were killed. The military action in the temple complex was criticized by Sikhs worldwide, who interpreted it as an assault on the Sikh religion.
Five months after the operation, on 31 October , Indira Gandhi was assassinated in an act of revenge by her two Sikh bodyguards, Satwant Singh and Beant Singh. Following the events of the Sikh-Nirankari clashes and the Dharam Yudh Morcha , Jarnail Singh Bhindranwale had risen to prominence in Sikh political circles with his policy of getting the Anandpur Resolution passed, failing which he wanted to declare a separate country of Khalistan as a homeland for Sikhs.
What they simply want is that they should be allowed to live within India as Sikhs, free from all direct and indirect interference and tampering with their religious way of life.
Undoubtedly, the Sikhs have the same nationality as other Indians. One of the main aims of the KGB active measures in the early s was to manufacture evidence that the CIA and Pakistani intelligence were behind the growth of Sikh separatism in Punjab. He called Bhindranwale "our stave to beat the government. Bhindranwale had made Golden Temple complex his headquarters. Atwal was shot dead by a gunman in the complex as he left the Harmandir Sahib compound.
During debate in the Parliament of India members of both houses demanded the arrest of Bhindranwale. Sensing a prospect of his arrest from the hostel premises, he convinced SGPC president Tohra to set up his headquarter in Akal Takht a shrine representing the temporal power of God in the Golden Temple.
Longowal by now feared for his own safety. A few leaders raised their voice against Bhindranwale in the Akal Takht complex and other gurdwaras across the state.
Partap had openly criticized Bhindranwale for stocking arms and ammunition in the Akal Takht. Bhindranwale's occupation of the Akal Takht was called an act of sacrilege.
Partap was shot dead at his home in Tahli Chowk. Other dissenters were also killed. The support was either voluntary or forced by using violence or threat of violence. The Golden Temple complex afforded the militants based inside a facade of fighting a " holy war ". It also gave them access to new potential recruits from among the visitors. Several multi-storied buildings were located on the Parikrama walkway around the reservoir of the temple, providing rooms and offices which were used by the militants.
The temple complex also offered logistical advantage to the militants with easy access to food, water and communication lines. Further, the sanctity of the Golden Temple provided protection from arrests by the security forces, who avoided entering the Temple premises so as not to offend the religious sentiments of the Sikhs.
It would have caused numerous casualties as collateral damage , the Golden Temple being one of the most visited sites in Punjab. Other options such as negotiations were chosen instead. The government sent a team led by Narasimha Rao to try to convince Bhindranwale to back out but he was adamant.
These talks ended up being futile. The Sikhs would withdraw, believing they had seen a commando unit move into the city. There are many hunters after it". She was apparently led to believe and had assumed that Operation Blue Star would not involve any civilian casualties. An arsenal had been created within the Akal Takht over a period of several months.
It was reported that trucks engaged for kar seva religious service and bringing in supplies for the daily langar were smuggling in guns and ammunition. During a random check one such truck was stopped and many sten guns and ammunition were found. The Indian government White Paper alleged that after Operation Blue Star it was found that the militants had set up a grenade manufacturing facility, and a workshop for the fabrication of sten-guns inside the Temple Complex.
The Harmandir Sahib compound and some of the surrounding houses were fortified under the guidance of Major General Shabeg Singh , who had joined Bhindranwale's group after dismissal from the army. During their occupation of Akal Takht, Bhindranwale's group had begun fortifying the building. The Statesman reported that light machine guns and semi-automatic rifles were known to have been brought into the compound,  and strategically placed to defend against an armed assault on the complex.
The modern weapons later found inside the temple complex indicated that foreign elements were involved. The heavier weapons were found to have Pakistani or Chinese markings on them. Holes were smashed through the marble walls of Akal takht to create gun positions. Walls were broken to allow entry points from the basements in the Takht and from the rooms around the Parikrama, to the tiled courtyards. Secure machine gun nests were created. All of these positions were protected by sandbags and newly made brick walls.
The windows and arches of Akal Takht were blocked with bricks and sandbags. Sandbags were placed on the turrets.
The entire Akal Takht had been converted into a large reinforced pillbox with weapons pointing in all directions. Every strategically significant building of the temple complex, apart from the Harmandir Sahib located at its very centre, had been fortified in a similar manner and allegedly defaced. The fortifications also included seventeen private houses in the residential area near the Temple.
The militants manning these vantage points were in wireless contact with Shabeg Singh in Akal Takht. The militants in the complex were anticipating an attack by government troops. The defences in the complex were created with the purpose of holding out long enough to provoke an uprising among Sikhs in the villages and encourage them to march en masse towards the Golden Temple in support of the militants. Sufficient food to last a month was stocked in the complex.
During this period police and security forces stationed around the temple complex were allowed only beyond a sanitised area of more than yards. This was to avoid the 'desecration' of the temple by their presence.
The security forces were prevented by the politicians from taking action in enforcing the law. Even self-defence from the militants was made difficult.
On 14 February , a police post near the entrance of the Temple was attacked by a group of militants. Six fully armed policemen were captured and taken inside. After twenty four hours the police responded and sent in a senior police officer for negotiation.
He asked Bhindranwale in the Akal Takht to release his men and return their weapons. Bhindranwale agreed only to return the corpse of one of the policemen who had been killed. Later the remaining five policemen who were still alive were also released, but their weapons, including three sten guns and a wireless set, were not returned.
The fortifications of the temple denied the army the possibility of commando operations. The buildings were close together and had labyrinthine passages all under the control of the militants. Militants in the temple premises had access to langars, food supplies, and water from the Sarovar temple pond. Militants were well stocked with weapons and ammunition.
Any siege under these circumstances would have been long and difficult. The option of laying down a long siege was ruled out by the army due to the risk of emotionally aroused villagers marching to the temple and clashing with the army. The negotiated settlement had already been rejected by Bhindranwale and the only option left to the government was to raid the temple. As high-handed police methods normally used on common criminals were used on protesters during the Dharam Yudh Morcha , creating state repression affecting a very large segment of Punjab's population, retaliatory violence came from a section of the Sikh population, widening the scope of the conflict by the use of violence of the state on its own people, creating fresh motives for Sikh youth to turn to insurgency.
In addition, seven editors and seven news hawkers and newsagents were killed in a planned attack on the freedom of media house, to cripple it financially. Punjab Police had to provide protection for the entire distribution staff, and scenes of armed policemen escorting news hawkers on their morning rounds became common.
The numbers of violent militant incidents were increasing every month, alongside nearly Sikhs killed by police forces and mob violence during the Dharam Yudh Morcha protests. It was nine in September ; in October it increased to thirty six, and in May there were more than fifty violent incidents. These incidents included bank robberies , attacks on police, arson at railway stations, bombings, indiscriminate shootings, and killing of Hindu passengers forcibly taken off of buses.
The government never provided evidence of the supposedly planned massacre of Hindus that triggered Operation Blue Star, although the pace of attacks was increasing. In June , the army was called out to help the civil administration in Punjab in response to a request from the Punjab Governor, B. Pande , "in view of the escalating violence by terrorists in Punjab". Certain radical groups [ who? Sikhs from other states were moving into Punjab and Punjabi Hindus were moving to neighbouring states in increasing numbers.
New Khalistani currency was being printed and distributed. On 3 June, a hour curfew was imposed on the state of Punjab with all methods of communication and public travel suspended. The forces had full control of Harmandir Sahib by the morning of 7 June. There were casualties among the army, civilians, and militants. Sikh leaders Bhindranwale and Shabeg Singh were killed in the operation.
General Vaidya, assisted by Lt.
Operation Blue Star 1984 by Tariq Ismail Sagar Novel PDF Download
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The book published by HarperCollins will be released on October It was initiated and managed by some senior and influential Congress leaders operating from the prime minister's residential office at 1 Akbar Road, New Delhi ," said author GBS Sidhu. However, as that operation had some external ramifications, the RAW became involved in one form or the other. It was in that context that I had my own personal experiences and insights related to the operation, and they form the core of this book Was it to ensure maximum impact on their potential voters in the next general elections?
Operation Blue Star: The True Story
Brar's version of the events that shaped India for years to come. This edition is the Punjabi translation of the original. June
His research and teaching interests include Asian religions, American religions, and sacred sound. His dissertation is ethnography about Sikh kirtan in America.
Over 3, security personnel have been deployed and police are maintaining a hawk-eyed vigil in sensitive areas. The operation was carried out by the Indian Army in to flush out militants hiding in the Harmandir Sahib or the Golden Temple complex, in Amritsar. It was carried out within the premises of the shrine between June 1 and June 8, It all started with the rise of the Khalistan movement in India. It was a Sikh separatist movement, which aimed to create a separate country called Khalistan Land of the Khalsa in the Punjab region, to serve as a homeland for Sikhs. The movement is said to have started in early s and s.
Ну конечно, - сказала она, все еще не в силах поверить в произошедшее. - Он хотел, чтобы вы восстановили его доброе имя. - Нет, - хмуро сказал Стратмор. - Танкадо потребовал ТРАНСТЕКСТ. - ТРАНСТЕКСТ. - Да. Он потребовал, чтобы я публично, перед всем миром, рассказал о том, что у нас есть ТРАНСТЕКСТ.
Тут все без обмана. Он стоит десять раз по двадцать миллионов. - Увы, - сказал Нуматака, которому уже наскучило играть, - мы оба знаем, что Танкадо этого так не оставит. Подумайте о юридических последствиях. Звонивший выдержал зловещую паузу.
Тебе надо лечиться от паранойи. В трубке повисло молчание. - Мидж… - Джабба попробовал извиниться.
Он просиял. - Второй раз за один вечер. Что подумают люди. - В шифровалке проблемы.
Он увидел светловолосую девушку, помогающую Дэвиду Беккеру найти стул и сесть. Беккера, по-видимому, мучила боль. Он еще не знает, что такое настоящая боль, подумал человек в такси.
Ты это отлично знаешь. - Но такие сведения секретны. - У нас чрезвычайная ситуация, и мне нужен этот список.
В трубке повисло молчание. - Мидж… - Джабба попробовал извиниться. - Позволь мне объяснить.
Что-то сказанное панком не давало ему покоя. Я прихожу сюда каждый вечер. А что, если этот парень способен ему помочь. - Прошу прощения, - сказал .
Очень остроумно. - Вы болван, Стратмор, - сказал Хейл, сплюнув. - К вашему сведению, ваш ТРАНСТЕКСТ перегрелся. - Что ты говоришь? - засмеялся Стратмор. - Что же ты предлагаешь.
Беккер рванулся к двери, рука его опустилась мимо поручня, и он чуть не упал. Еще одно усилие. Где-то под брюхом автобуса клацнуло сцепление: сейчас водитель переключит рычаг скоростей. Сейчас переключит. Мне не успеть.