what is intervertebral disc degeneration and what causes it pdf

What Is Intervertebral Disc Degeneration And What Causes It Pdf

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Disc degeneration in the human spine is a complex phenomenon characterised by biochemical change in the nucleus pulposus and inner annulus and the formation of clefts and fissures radiating from the central area of the disc towards the periphery.

Skip to search form Skip to main content You are currently offline. Some features of the site may not work correctly. DOI: Adams and P. Adams , P.

Degenerative Disc Disease

Study design: Review and reinterpretation of existing literature. Objective: To suggest how intervertebral disc degeneration might be distinguished from the physiologic processes of growth, aging, healing, and adaptive remodeling.

Summary of background data: The research literature concerning disc degeneration is particularly diverse, and there are no accepted definitions to guide biomedical research, or medicolegal practice. Definitions: The process of disc degeneration is an aberrant, cell-mediated response to progressive structural failure. A degenerate disc is one with structural failure combined with accelerated or advanced signs of aging.

Early degenerative changes should refer to accelerated age-related changes in a structurally intact disc. Degenerative disc disease should be applied to a degenerate disc that is also painful.

Justification: Structural defects such as endplate fracture, radial fissures, and herniation are easily detected, unambiguous markers of impaired disc function. They are not inevitable with age and are more closely related to pain than any other feature of aging discs.

Structural failure is irreversible because adult discs have limited healing potential. It also progresses by physical and biologic mechanisms, and, therefore, is a suitable marker for a degenerative process. Biologic progression occurs because structural failure uncouples the local mechanical environment of disc cells from the overall loading of the disc, so that disc cell responses can be inappropriate or "aberrant.

This definition of disc degeneration simplifies the issue of causality: excessive mechanical loading disrupts a disc's structure and precipitates a cascade of cell-mediated responses, leading to further disruption. Underlying causes of disc degeneration include genetic inheritance, age, inadequate metabolite transport, and loading history, all of which can weaken discs to such an extent that structural failure occurs during the activities of daily living.

The other closely related definitions help to distinguish between degenerate and injured discs, and between discs that are and are not painful. Abstract Study design: Review and reinterpretation of existing literature. Publication types Research Support, U. Gov't, Non-P.

Intervertebral disc disease

An intervertebral disc or intervertebral fibrocartilage lies between adjacent vertebrae in the vertebral column. Each disc forms a fibrocartilaginous joint a symphysis , to allow slight movement of the vertebrae, to act as a ligament to hold the vertebrae together, and to function as a shock absorber for the spine. Intervertebral discs consist of an outer fibrous ring, the anulus fibrosus disci intervertebralis , which surrounds an inner gel-like center, the nucleus pulposus. Type I is concentrated toward the edge of the ring, where it provides greater strength. The stiff laminae can withstand compressive forces.

Study design: Review and reinterpretation of existing literature. Objective: To suggest how intervertebral disc degeneration might be distinguished from the physiologic processes of growth, aging, healing, and adaptive remodeling. Summary of background data: The research literature concerning disc degeneration is particularly diverse, and there are no accepted definitions to guide biomedical research, or medicolegal practice. Definitions: The process of disc degeneration is an aberrant, cell-mediated response to progressive structural failure. A degenerate disc is one with structural failure combined with accelerated or advanced signs of aging.

Metrics details. The intervertebral disc is a cartilaginous structure that resembles articular cartilage in its biochemistry, but morphologically it is clearly different. It shows degenerative and ageing changes earlier than does any other connective tissue in the body. It is believed to be important clinically because there is an association of disc degeneration with back pain. Current treatments are predominantly conservative or, less commonly, surgical; in many cases there is no clear diagnosis and therapy is considered inadequate.


What is Intervertebral Disc Degeneration, and What. Causes It? Michael A. Adams, PhD,* and Peter J. Roughley, PhD†. Study Design. Review and reinterpretation.


Degeneration of the intervertebral disc

Not everyone, however, will have degenerative disc disease. Not actually a disease, this is a condition in which a damaged disc causes pain. A wide range of symptoms and severity is associated with this condition. The discs are like shock absorbers between the bones of the spine and are designed to help the back stay flexible while resisting terrific forces in many different planes of motion.

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Intervertebral disc

Introduction

Skip to search form Skip to main content You are currently offline. Some features of the site may not work correctly. DOI: Adams and P. Adams , P. Roughley Published Medicine Spine.

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5 comments

Valiant B.

Intervertebral disc (IVD) degeneration is the main clinical presentation. The primary cause of disc degeneration is tissue breakdown, primarily due to senescence, poor diet, genetic inheritance, or injury [3]. IVD degeneration is a process and is often caused by biomechanical changes within the IVD.

REPLY

Andrew C.

Currently there is a growing interest in the study of intervertebral discs due to loss of manpower brought to society by low back and neck pains.

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Mohammad S.

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Shawna H.

Intervertebral disc disease is a common condition characterized by the breakdown degeneration of one or more of the discs that separate the bones of the spine vertebrae , causing pain in the back or neck and frequently in the legs and arms.

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