Engineering Properties Of Rocks And Soils Pdf
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- 9 Index Properties of Rocks | Geology
- Study of Material Composition Effects on the Mechanical Properties of Soil-Rock Mixtures
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The first issue of the journal was released in , under the name Solos e Rochas. In , the Brazilian Association for Soil Mechanics and Geotechnical Engineering took over the editorial and publishing responsibilities of Solos e Rochas, increasing its reach. In , the journal acquired the status of an international journal, being since then published by the Brazilian Association for Soil Mechanics and Geotechnical Engineering and Portuguese Geotechnical Society under the title Soils and Rocks. The aim of Soils and Rocks is to publish and disseminate basic and applied research in Geoengineering. Soils and Rocks publishes original and innovative peer reviewed articles, technical notes, case studies, reviews and discussions in the fields of Soil and Rock Mechanics, Geotechnical Engineering, Engineering Geology and Environmental Engineering.
9 Index Properties of Rocks | Geology
This module highlights most of the engineering properties of soils. SlideShare Explore Search You. Submit Search. Home Explore. Successfully reported this slideshow. We use your LinkedIn profile and activity data to personalize ads and to show you more relevant ads. You can change your ad preferences anytime. Engineering properties of soil. Upcoming SlideShare. Like this presentation? Why not share! Geological Site Investigation Methods by!
SYOU co-designed Embed Size px. Start on. Show related SlideShares at end. WordPress Shortcode. Balasubramanian , Professor at University of Mysore Follow. Published in: Science. Full Name Comment goes here. Are you sure you want to Yes No. Gadha G Nair. Hemraj Sau , Show More. No Downloads. Views Total views. Actions Shares. No notes for slide. Engineering properties of soil 1. Introduction: Engineering properties of soil comprises of physical properties, index properties, strength parameters shear strength parameters , permeability characteristics, consolidation properties, modulus parameters, dynamic behavior etc.
Cohesion : It is the internal molecular attraction which resists the rupture or shear of a material. Cohesion is derived in the fine grained soils from the water films which bind together the individual particles in the soil mass. Cohesion is the property of the fine grained soil with particle size below 0.
Cohesion is greater in well compacted clays and it is independent of the external load applied. Angle of Internal Friction The resistance in sliding of grain particles of a soil mass depends upon the angle of internal friction. The soils subjected to the higher normal stresses will have lower moisture contents and higher bulk densities at failure than those subjected to lower normal stresses and the angle of internal friction may thus change.
The angle of internal friction fro granular soils may vary in between to Capillarity : It is the ability of soil to transmit moisture in all directions regardless of any gravitational force. Water rises up through soil pores due to capillary attraction. The capillary rise in a soil when wet may equal as much as 4 to 5 times the height of capillary rise in the same soil when dry.
Clays may have capillary rise up to 0. Permeability : Permeability of a soil is the rate at which water flows through it under action of hydraulic gradient. Permeability is a property of soil mass and not of individual particles.
The permeability of cohesive soil is, in general, very small. Knowledge of permeability is required not only for seepage, drainage and ground water problems but also for the rate of settlement of structures on saturated soils.
Soil plasticity : Soil plasticity is a property that enables the moist soil to change shape when some force is applied over it and to retain this shape even after the removal of the force from it. The plasticity of soil depends on the cohesion and adhesion of soil materials. Cohesion refers to the attraction of substances of like characteristics, such as, that of one water molecule for another.
Soil consistency depends on the texture and amount of inorganic and organic colloids, structure and moisture contents of soil. Elasticity : This elastic behavior is characteristic of peat. The most important characteristic of the elastic behavior of soil is that no matter how many repetitions of load are applied to it, provided that the stress set up in the soil do not exceed the yield stress, the soil does not become permanently deformed.
Clays are compressible, i. Uniaxial Compressive Strength UCS Test Compressive strength is the capacity of a material to withstand axially directed compressive forces.
The most common measure of compressive strength is the uniaxial compressive strength a. The test involves a soil specimen subjected to an axial load until failure while also being subjected to confining pressure that approximates the in-situ stress conditions. Available water capacity refers to the quantity of water that the soil is capable of storing for use by plants. The most important properties are the content of organic matter, soil texture, bulk density, and soil structure.
Available water capacity is an important factor in the choice of plants or crops to be grown and in the design and management of irrigation systems. Atterberg Limits : When a clayey soil is mixed with an excessive amount of water, it may flow like a semi-liquid. If the soil is gradually dried, it will behave like a plastic, semisolid, or solid material depending on its moisture content. Similarly, the moisture contents, in percent, at which the soil change from a plastic to a semisolid state and from a semisolid to a solid state are define as the plastic limit PL and the shrinkage limit SL , respectively.
The behavior of the soil is therefore related directly to the amount of water which is present. In , A. Atterberg defined the boundaries of four states of consistency in terms of limits.
The consistency limits of the soil are controlled by the pore fluid pressure. Fluid in a soil will promote excess pressure to cause fluid like behavior of the soil. Plastic Limit PL : The plastic limit PL is the moisture content at which a soil transitions from being in a semisolid state to a plastic state.
Liquid Limit LL : The liquid limit LL is defined as the moisture content at which a soil transitions from a plastic state to a liquid state. The PI represents the range of moisture contents within which the soil behaves as a plastic solid. Each limit represents a water content at which the soil changes from one state to another. Activity : The degree of plasticity related to the clay content is called the Activity of the soil.
Specific Gravity of Soils The specific gravity of soil, Gs, is defined as the ratio of the unit weight of a given material to the unit weight of water. Weight-Volume Relationships: In nature, soils are three-phase systems consisting of solid soil particles, water, an air or gas. To develop the weight-volume relationships for a soil, the three phases can be separated. Soil Strength : The shear strength is the internal resistance per unit area that the soil can handle before failure and is expressed as a stress.
However, it is difficult and frequently impossible to sample, transport, extrude and set- up testing for granular, cohesionless soils Sand or Gravel without excessively disturbing or completely obliterating the soil specimen. Consolidation Test : The amount of settlement induced by the placement of load bearing elements on the ground surface or the construction of earthen embankments will affect the performance of the structure.
The amount of settlement is a function of the increase in pore water pressure caused by the loading and the reduction of this pressure over time. All soils undergo elastic compression and primary and secondary consolidation. Shrinkage and Swell : Certain soil types highly plastic have a large potential for volumetric change depending on the moisture content of the soil. Shrinkage can cause soil to pull away from structure thus reducing the bearing area or causing settlement of the structure beyond that predicted by settlement analysis.
Swelling of the soil can cause an extra load to be applied to the structure that was not accounted for in design. Bulk density : Bulk density data are used to compute shrink- swell potential, available water capacity, total pore space, and other soil properties. The moist bulk density of a soil indicates the pore space available for water and roots. Moist bulk density is influenced by texture, kind of clay, content of organic matter, and soil structure. Erodibility: It refers to the ease with which soil materials can be removed by wind or water.
Easily eroded materials include unprotected silt, sand and other loosely consolidated materials, You just clipped your first slide! Clipping is a handy way to collect important slides you want to go back to later. Now customize the name of a clipboard to store your clips. Visibility Others can see my Clipboard.
Study of Material Composition Effects on the Mechanical Properties of Soil-Rock Mixtures
This article throws light upon the nine index properties of rocks. The properties are:- 1. Specific Gravity 2. Moisture Content 3. Saturation Moisture Content MC sat 4. Porosity 5.
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