an introduction to software and hardware interfacing 2nd pdf

An Introduction To Software And Hardware Interfacing 2nd Pdf

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Operating system

An operating system OS is system software that manages computer hardware , software resources, and provides common services for computer programs. Time-sharing operating systems schedule tasks for efficient use of the system and may also include accounting software for cost allocation of processor time , mass storage , printing, and other resources.

For hardware functions such as input and output and memory allocation , the operating system acts as an intermediary between programs and the computer hardware, [1] [2] although the application code is usually executed directly by the hardware and frequently makes system calls to an OS function or is interrupted by it.

The dominant general-purpose [3] desktop operating system is Microsoft Windows with a market share of around Other specialized classes of operating systems special-purpose operating systems [7] [8] , such as embedded and real-time systems, exist for many applications. Security-focused operating systems also exist. Some operating systems have low system requirements i.

Others may have higher system requirements. Some operating systems require installation or may come pre-installed with purchased computers OEM -installation , whereas others may run directly from media i. A single-tasking system can only run one program at a time, while a multi-tasking operating system allows more than one program to be running in concurrency. This is achieved by time-sharing , where the available processor time is divided between multiple processes.

These processes are each interrupted repeatedly in time slices by a task-scheduling subsystem of the operating system.

Multi-tasking may be characterized in preemptive and co-operative types. In preemptive multitasking, the operating system slices the CPU time and dedicates a slot to each of the programs.

Unix-like operating systems, such as Solaris and Linux —as well as non-Unix-like, such as AmigaOS —support preemptive multitasking. Cooperative multitasking is achieved by relying on each process to provide time to the other processes in a defined manner. Single-user operating systems have no facilities to distinguish users, but may allow multiple programs to run in tandem.

Time-sharing operating systems schedule tasks for efficient use of the system and may also include accounting software for cost allocation of processor time, mass storage, printing, and other resources to multiple users.

A distributed operating system manages a group of distinct, networked computers and makes them appear to be a single computer, as all computations are distributed divided amongst the constituent computers. In the distributed and cloud computing context of an OS, templating refers to creating a single virtual machine image as a guest operating system, then saving it as a tool for multiple running virtual machines.

The technique is used both in virtualization and cloud computing management, and is common in large server warehouses. Embedded operating systems are designed to be used in embedded computer systems. They are designed to operate on small machines with less autonomy e. They are very compact and extremely efficient by design, and are able to operate with a limited amount of resources. Windows CE and Minix 3 are some examples of embedded operating systems.

A real-time operating system is an operating system that guarantees to process events or data by a specific moment in time. A real-time operating system may be single- or multi-tasking, but when multitasking, it uses specialized scheduling algorithms so that a deterministic nature of behavior is achieved. Such an event-driven system switches between tasks based on their priorities or external events, whereas time-sharing operating systems switch tasks based on clock interrupts.

A library operating system is one in which the services that a typical operating system provides, such as networking, are provided in the form of libraries and composed with the application and configuration code to construct a unikernel : a specialized, single address space , machine image that can be deployed to cloud or embedded environments. Early computers were built to perform a series of single tasks, like a calculator.

Basic operating system features were developed in the s, such as resident monitor functions that could automatically run different programs in succession to speed up processing. Operating systems did not exist in their modern and more complex forms until the early s. When personal computers became popular in the s, operating systems were made for them similar in concept to those used on larger computers.

In the s, the earliest electronic digital systems had no operating systems. Electronic systems of this time were programmed on rows of mechanical switches or by jumper wires on plugboards.

These were special-purpose systems that, for example, generated ballistics tables for the military or controlled the printing of payroll checks from data on punched paper cards. After programmable general-purpose computers were invented, machine languages consisting of strings of the binary digits 0 and 1 on punched paper tape were introduced that sped up the programming process Stern, In the early s, a computer could execute only one program at a time.

Each user had sole use of the computer for a limited period and would arrive at a scheduled time with their program and data on punched paper cards or punched tape. The program would be loaded into the machine, and the machine would be set to work until the program completed or crashed. Programs could generally be debugged via a front panel using toggle switches and panel lights.

It is said that Alan Turing was a master of this on the early Manchester Mark 1 machine, and he was already deriving the primitive conception of an operating system from the principles of the universal Turing machine. Later machines came with libraries of programs, which would be linked to a user's program to assist in operations such as input and output and compiling generating machine code from human-readable symbolic code.

This was the genesis of the modern-day operating system. However, machines still ran a single job at a time.

At Cambridge University in England, the job queue was at one time a washing line clothesline from which tapes were hung with different colored clothes-pegs to indicate job priority. An improvement was the Atlas Supervisor. Introduced with the Manchester Atlas in , it is considered by many to be the first recognisable modern operating system.

These features were included or not included in application software at the option of application programmers, rather than in a separate operating system used by all applications. When a process is terminated for any reason, all of these resources are re-claimed by the operating system.

In cooperation with the University of Minnesota, the Kronos and later the NOS operating systems were developed during the s, which supported simultaneous batch and timesharing use. Like many commercial timesharing systems, its interface was an extension of the Dartmouth BASIC operating systems, one of the pioneering efforts in timesharing and programming languages.

In the late s, Control Data and the University of Illinois developed the PLATO operating system, which used plasma panel displays and long-distance time sharing networks. Plato was remarkably innovative for its time, featuring real-time chat, and multi-user graphical games. MCP also introduced many other ground-breaking innovations, such as being the first commercial implementation of virtual memory.

This proposal was declined by Burroughs management to protect its existing hardware production. Like all early main-frame systems, this batch-oriented system managed magnetic drums, disks, card readers and line printers.

From the late s through the late s, several hardware capabilities evolved that allowed similar or ported software to run on more than one system. Early systems had utilized microprogramming to implement features on their systems in order to permit different underlying computer architectures to appear to be the same as others in a series. The enormous investment in software for these systems made since the s caused most of the original computer manufacturers to continue to develop compatible operating systems along with the hardware.

Notable supported mainframe operating systems include:. The first microcomputers did not have the capacity or need for the elaborate operating systems that had been developed for mainframes and minis; minimalistic operating systems were developed, often loaded from ROM and known as monitors.

In the s, Apple Computer Inc. The introduction of the Intel CPU chip in October , [15] with bit architecture and paging capabilities, provided personal computers with the ability to run multitasking operating systems like those of earlier minicomputers and mainframes.

He would lead the development of the Windows NT operating system, which continues to serve as the basis for Microsoft's operating systems line.

Steve Jobs , a co-founder of Apple Inc. While the project was highly successful in duplicating the functionality of various parts of UNIX, development of the GNU Hurd kernel proved to be unproductive. In , Finnish computer science student Linus Torvalds , with cooperation from volunteers collaborating over the Internet, released the first version of the Linux kernel.

It was soon merged with the GNU user space components and system software to form a complete operating system. Unix was originally written in assembly language. B was replaced by C , and Unix, rewritten in C, developed into a large, complex family of inter-related operating systems which have been influential in every modern operating system see History. The name " UNIX " is a trademark of The Open Group which licenses it for use with any operating system that has been shown to conform to their definitions.

Unix-like systems run on a wide variety of computer architectures. They are used heavily for servers in business, as well as workstations in academic and engineering environments. In contrast, Sun Microsystems 's Solaris can run on multiple types of hardware, including x86 and Sparc servers, and PCs.

The POSIX standard can be applied to any operating system, although it was originally created for various Unix variants. These operating systems are most commonly found on webservers , although they can also function as a personal computer OS. The Internet owes much of its existence to BSD, as many of the protocols now commonly used by computers to connect, send and receive data over a network were widely implemented and refined in BSD.

In , University of California, Berkeley installed its first Unix system. Over time, students and staff in the computer science department there began adding new programs to make things easier, such as text editors.

When Berkeley received new VAX computers in with Unix installed, the school's undergraduates modified Unix even more in order to take advantage of the computer's hardware possibilities. Steve Jobs , upon leaving Apple Inc. Developers like Keith Bostic encouraged the project to replace any non-free code that originated with Bell Labs.

Unlike its predecessor, macOS is a UNIX operating system built on technology that had been developed at NeXT through the second half of the s and up until Apple purchased the company in early Since then, six more distinct "client" and " server " editions of macOS have been released, until the two were merged in OS X With Mac OS X v The server tools are now offered as an application.

The Linux kernel originated in , as a project of Linus Torvalds , while a university student in Finland. He posted information about his project on a newsgroup for computer students and programmers, and received support and assistance from volunteers who succeeded in creating a complete and functional kernel.

Because of its open license model, the Linux kernel code is available for study and modification, which resulted in its use on a wide range of computing machinery from supercomputers to smart-watches.

Although estimates suggest that Linux is used on only 1. Linux has superseded Unix on many platforms and is used on most supercomputers including the top Linux is also commonly used on other small energy-efficient computers, such as smartphones and smartwatches.

Microsoft Windows is a family of proprietary operating systems designed by Microsoft Corporation and primarily targeted to Intel architecture based computers, with an estimated In , Windows 7 overtook Windows XP as most common version in use. Microsoft Windows was first released in , as an operating environment running on top of MS-DOS , which was the standard operating system shipped on most Intel architecture personal computers at the time.

Windows ME , released in , was the last version in the Win9x family. Later versions have all been based on the Windows NT kernel. In the past, Windows NT supported additional architectures.

PIC Microcontroller An Introduction To Software And Hardware Interfacing20200228 82779 1506apc

If you are not required to use this edition for a course, you may want to check it out. The second component of an information system is software. Simply put: Software is the set of instructions that tell the hardware what to do. Software is created through the process of programming we will cover the creation of software in more detail in chapter Without software, the hardware would not be functional. Software can be broadly divided into two categories: operating systems and application software. All computing devices run an operating system.

Lecture 3 Mon, Sep Embedded systems can have anything between a complex real-time operating system, such as Linux, or just the application program with no operating sys-tem, whatsoever. Bootlin — Embedded Linux and kernel engineering. Buildroot is a simple, efficient and easy-to-use tool to generate embedded Linux systems through cross-compilation. This is a great course for anyone who is interested in getting hands on experience with Embedded Systems. There is a wealth of information to be found describing how to install and use PostgreSQL through the official documentation. The embedded software development process just described is illustrated in Figure

PIC Microcontroller An Introduction To Software And Hardware Interfacing By Hang Way Huang

By reading we can add insight and gain new information useful to us. What we have here is the ultimate example of Speculative Fiction. There is plenty of fantasy, of that which feels imagined, and there is science with spaceships Free online reading at Read

Computer Architecture Notes Pdf In a Distributed system, the existence of multiple autonomous computers is transparent i. Related Posts. Introduction to Computer Organization and Architecture. Data Structures and Algorithms.

Human—computer interaction HCI studies the design and use of computer technology , focused on the interfaces between people users and computers. Researchers in the field of HCI observe the ways in which humans interact with computers and design technologies that let humans interact with computers in novel ways. As a field of research, human-computer interaction is situated at the intersection of computer science , behavioural sciences , design , media studies , and several other fields of study. The term was popularized by Stuart K.

ISBN 13: 9780766816008

The new, second edition of this comprehensive book on the 68HC11 microcontroller from Motorola is unique in that it uses both the assembly language for better hardware control and execution time and the C language for faster projection completion to instruct readers in the basics of interface programming. Now featuring greater numbers of exercises in every chapter - plus new tutorials on the EVB and CMDA8 demo boards and use of the C compiler - this edition of MC68HCAn Introduction utilizes a methodical, step-by-step approach to facilitate learning. Improved coverage of multi-precision division, updated LCD interfacing examples, discussion of the i interfacing chip, plus detailed coverage of humidity and sensor signal processing is also featured in this edition. Convert currency. Add to Basket.

Beginning with an excellent tutorial on C basics, the reader is introduced to microcontrollers with descriptions of their programming environment and tips on coding for microcontrollers. Installing Atmel Studio 6. Long known as the subject's definitive text, this indispensable volume comes packed with more than illustrations, and provides comprehensive, easy-to-understand coverage of the PIC. I like being down at that level without the arduino. Code Composer Studio comprises a suite of tools used to develop and debug embedded applications.

ISBN 13: 9780766816008

Application Software

Pages Page size x Recommend Papers. ECE Microcomputer Systems. Download it once and read it on your Kindle device, PC, phones or tablets. Get this from a library!

Not only did they bring fresh supplies but they said the mail can go out. Had Max missed us as much as we had missed him. She might not know how to take proper care of a baby. With more or less culpability he had assisted Johnson to escape, will try to talk you out of it, it was a challenge to bring him around, the revered Hindu traitor who legitimized the partition of our India by persuading the people to accept it without violence. People lie because they worry over the consequences of admitting the truth.

Software is a program that enables a computer to perform a specific task, as opposed to the physical components of the system hardware. This includes application software such as a word processor, which enables a user to perform a task, and system software such as an operating system, which enables other software to run properly, by interfacing with hardware and with other software. Practical computer systems divide software into three major classes: system software, programming software and application software, although the distinction is arbitrary, and often blurred.

An operating system OS is system software that manages computer hardware , software resources, and provides common services for computer programs. Time-sharing operating systems schedule tasks for efficient use of the system and may also include accounting software for cost allocation of processor time , mass storage , printing, and other resources. For hardware functions such as input and output and memory allocation , the operating system acts as an intermediary between programs and the computer hardware, [1] [2] although the application code is usually executed directly by the hardware and frequently makes system calls to an OS function or is interrupted by it. The dominant general-purpose [3] desktop operating system is Microsoft Windows with a market share of around Other specialized classes of operating systems special-purpose operating systems [7] [8] , such as embedded and real-time systems, exist for many applications.

PDF Download MC68HC11 An Introduction Software and Hardware Interfacing 2nd Edition PDF Online

Designed as possible first microprocessor text, complete with.

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