parallel and serial data transmission pdf

Parallel And Serial Data Transmission Pdf

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Serial communication is common method of transmitting data between a computer and a peripheral device such as a programmable instrument or even another computer. Serial communication transmits data one bit at a time, sequentially, over a single communication line to a receiver. Serial is also a most popular communication protocol that is used by many devices for instrumentation.

Serial and Parallel Transmission Computer Science Engineering (CSE) Notes | EduRev

To browse Academia. Skip to main content. By using our site, you agree to our collection of information through the use of cookies. To learn more, view our Privacy Policy. Log In Sign Up. Download Free PDF. Rashed Mustafa.

Download PDF. A short summary of this paper. Existing OSI reference model has seven layers. Reference [1] denotes that application layer interfaces with applications that desire to communicate and is in contact with the application layer of the remote machine it is communicating with.

Presentation layer converts into general format so remote machine understand it. Session layer makes a session with remote machine. Reference [2] denotes that transport layer breaks data into segments and also controls error, flow etc. Network layer converts segment into packet adding logical addresses. Data link layer converts packet into frame adding physical addresses. Reference [3] depicts that physical layer converts frame into bit to transfer through the medium.

Our proposed reference model has six layers and it shows how data transfers from host to host. Our proposed parallel data transmission follows this proposed reference model. The proposed reference model has six layers. They are described below. Application layer is the top layer of the proposed reference model. Application layer actually interfaces the application that desires to communicate. The application layer is in contact with the application layer of the remote machine it is communicating with.

A PC setup as a network workstation has a software "Network Redirector". Its function is to check the file either it is for local computer or for the remote machine. If the file is for remote computer, application layer converts the format of the data to general format so that remote machine can understand easily.

The session layer manages the communications between the workstation and the network. It provides service to the upper application layer and lower transport layer. It has five fields. It also manages log on procedures and password recognition. In order for the data to be sent across the network, the file must be broken up into usable small data segments typically K bytes. The Transport layer breaks up the file into segments for transport to the network, and combines incoming segments into a contiguous file.

The Transport layer does this logically, not physically. If it is zero '0' then it indicates it is serial transmission so it transfers data one by one segment adding sequence number, acknowledgement number, checksum field to every segment. If it is one '1' then it is parallel transmission.

This bit also helps the remote machine to understand either the starting data transmission is serial or parallel transmission.

In the case of parallel transmission there are more than one line to transmit data. One for address line. It will hold all the address information such as Source Port, Destination Port, control etc.

The other lines are for data segments. The address information also has sequence number, acknowledgment number, checksum etc.

Each data segment has the sequence number. This sequence number is not same as address sequence number. The Network layer is concerned with the path through the network. It is responsible for routing, switching, and controlling the flow of information between hosts.

The network layer adds the source and destination IP address to each segment if it is serial transmission or adds IP addresses of the source and the destination to the address information if it is parallel transmission. The router operates at this layer --sending data throughout the extended network and making the Internet possible. The Data Link layer is a firmware layer of the network interface card. The data link layer adds MAC addresses to each segment if it is serial transmission and adds MAC addresses to the address line if it is parallel transmission.

It also adds start flag and end flag to each data segment. MAC address is 6 bytes long. The first 3 bytes identify the vendor such a 3Com or Intel, the last 3 bytes are unique for each card produced by the vendor. Switches work at the Data link layer. The Physical layer concerns itself with the transmission of bits. It also manages the network card's hardware interface to the network. The hardware interface involves the type of cabling coax, twisted pair, etc. Proposed Parallel Data Transmission.

Parallel data transmission means data transmit in parallel. All data segments, broken at the same time, have common address information, which also transmits simultaneously with the data segments. So each data segment has no individual address information but only sequence number and start flag and end flag and common address information in the address line. Every time when data are broken into segments according to the data segment line number one address information in created for those data segments.

If there are 4 lines then every time three data segments transmit simultaneously in three data lines and one address information transmit in the address line. Second address information in the address line is same as the first address information if the destination and application is same but sequence number is different from the first one. Every time a new address information is created for the transmission of the three data segments. This address information is different from the previous one in sequence number.

This process continues until the data transmission process end. If the remote machine does not know how many data segments come in parallel, it can calculate it from first address information and second address information of the transmission process. At the time of reassembling, it can also detect all segments by subtracting sequence number in the address information from data segment sequence number.

In case of single data segment transmission error, the remote machine, taking the address from address information, sends the sequence number of that data segment as an acknowledgment to the sender to retransmit that segment. The sender follows the serial transmission process to send that segment i. For more than one data segment error the remote machine sends the sequence number taking from the address information as an acknowledgment to send all data segments following that address information.

We assume there are 3 lines for data segment transmission and 1 line for address information transmission. Each data segment has 18k byte data. Maximum size of data for each segment. Each data segment at the time of transmitting consists of the following. Table 1. Our proposed system will be faster than the existing system.

It can be described easily by the following calculated value given in the table 1. It will be more error free. Our proposed system will be more error free than the existing system.

It can be described easily by the following calculation given in the table 1. We assume minimum error rate is 1 bit error occurs in case of bits transmission. It can be used in the places where faster and error free communication is necessary. We shall improve our proposed system so that it will be faster, better error free, secured and also design new protocols to support the proposed system better in future.

Fig So our proposed model is better than existing model. Size of the file selected for transmission Error rate in case of data transmission in the existing model Error rate in case of data transmission in the proposed model 1 MB Tanenbaum, "Computer Networks", pp , Comer, "Computer Networks and Internets", pp , , Gupta, "Data Communications", pp , , Keleher, S. Dwarkadas, A. Cox, and W. Treadmarks: Distributed Vern Paxson.

Automated packet trace analysis of TCP implementations. Kohler, M. Kaashoek, and D. A readable TCP in the J.

Serial and Parallel Transmission

The crucial difference between serial and parallel communication is that in serial communication a single communication link is used to transfer the data from an end to another. As against in parallel communication, multiple parallel links are used that transmits each bit of data simultaneously. Due to only a single communication link serial communication is comparatively more cost effective than parallel communication. In this article we will discuss some other factors that differentiates the two. In serial communication the data bits are transmitted serially over a common communication link one after the other.

For transferring data between computers, laptops, two methods are used, namely, Serial Transmission and Parallel Transmission. There are some similarities and dissimilarities between them. One of the primary difference is that; in Serial Transmission, data is sent bit by bit whereas, in Parallel Transmission a byte 8 bits or character is sent at a time. The similarity is that both are used to connect and communicate with peripheral devices. Furthermore, the parallel transmission is time-sensitive, whereas serial transmission is not time-sensitive. Other differences are discussed below.

Parallel Data Transmission: A Proposed Multilayered Reference Model

Digital data transmission can occur in two basic modes: serial or parallel. Data within a computer system is transmitted via parallel mode on buses with the width of the parallel bus matched to the word size of the computer system. Data between computer systems is usually transmitted in bit serial mode.

Data is transmitted from one device to another in analog or digital format. Basically, data transmission enables devices or components within devices to speak to each other. Data is transferred in the form of bits between two or more digital devices. There are two methods used to transmit data between digital devices: serial transmission and parallel transmission.

How UART Works

Data transmission and data reception or, more broadly, data communication or digital communications is the transfer and reception of data a digital bitstream or a digitized analog signal [1] over a point-to-point or point-to-multipoint communication channel. Examples of such channels are copper wires , optical fibers , wireless communication channels, storage media and computer buses. The data are represented as an electromagnetic signal , such as an electrical voltage , radiowave , microwave , or infrared signal. Analog or analogue transmission is a transmission method of conveying voice, data, image, signal or video information using a continuous signal which varies in amplitude, phase, or some other property in proportion to that of a variable. The messages are either represented by a sequence of pulses by means of a line code baseband transmission , or by a limited set of continuously varying waveforms passband transmission , using a digital modulation method.

To browse Academia. Skip to main content. By using our site, you agree to our collection of information through the use of cookies. To learn more, view our Privacy Policy. Log In Sign Up. Download Free PDF. Rashed Mustafa.

Сбои техники в Третьем узле были такой редкостью, что номера ошибок в ее памяти не задерживалось. Сьюзан пролистала справочник и нашла нужный список. 19: ОШИБКА В СИСТЕМНОМ РАЗДЕЛЕ 20: СКАЧОК НАПРЯЖЕНИЯ 21: СБОЙ СИСТЕМЫ ХРАНЕНИЯ ДАННЫХ Наконец она дошла до пункта 22 и, замерев, долго всматривалась в написанное.

Сначала слабые, еле видимые на сплошном сером фоне, они становились все ярче. Попробовал пошевелиться и ощутил резкую боль. Попытался что-то сказать, но голоса не .

 Осторожно! - сказала Соши.  - Нам нужны точные цифры. - Звездочка, - повторила Сьюзан, - это сноска. Соши прокрутила текст до конца раздела и побелела.

 Квадрат Цезаря, - просияла Сьюзан.  - Читается сверху. Танкадо прислал нам письмо.

Сейчас переключит. Мне не успеть. Но когда шестерни разомкнулись, чтобы включилась другая их пара, автобус слегка притормозил, и Беккер прыгнул.

Его туфли кордовской кожи стучали по асфальту, но его обычная реакция теннисиста ему изменила: он чувствовал, что теряет равновесие. Мозг как бы не поспевал за ногами.


Maria B.

One of the best things about UART is that it only uses two wires to transmit data between devices.


Aidan M.

Since the microprocessors in the devices pro- cess data in bit-parallel mode, the transmitter performs parallel-to-serial conversion, while the receiver performs.


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