female reproductive system anatomy and physiology pdf

Female Reproductive System Anatomy And Physiology Pdf

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The female reproductive system is made up of the internal and external sex organs that function in reproduction of new offspring. In humans, the female reproductive system is immature at birth and develops to maturity at puberty to be able to produce gametes , and to carry a foetus to full term. The internal sex organs are the uterus , Fallopian tubes , and ovaries. The uterus or womb accommodates the embryo which develops into the foetus. The uterus also produces vaginal and uterine secretions which help the transit of sperm to the Fallopian tubes.

27.1: Anatomy and Physiology of the Male Reproductive System

Advanced Practice in Endocrinology Nursing pp Cite as. At birth, a female baby already has her lifetime supply of oocytes that will be released through ovulation when she is sexually matured, between menarche and menopause. Puberty initially starts with thelarche breast budding around the age of 11 and menarche usually starts at an average age of around The menopause is the end of menstrual cycles. Puberty, menstrual cycles, and establishment of pregnancy are controlled by the hypothalamic, pituitary, and ovarian hormones. Following the menopause, the ovaries are no longer able to produce enough oestrogen and ovarian failure results in a rise in the gonadotropins.

Understanding the anatomy and physiology of the cow's reproductive system is fundamental to good cattle management. Basic knowledge in this area will help producers do a better job of getting cows rebred, especially when using artificial insemination and estrus synchronization. It will also enable producers to better understand and control reproductive diseases and calving problems. The ovary is the primary female reproductive organ and has two important functions: producing the female reproductive cell the egg or ovum and producing the hormones estrogen and progesterone. The cow's two ovaries are oval to bean-shaped organs that are 1—1.

These organs do the following jobs within your body:. The male reproductive system is made up of internal inside your body and external outside your body parts. Together, these organs help you urinate rid your body of liquid waste materials , have sexual intercourse and make children. Most of the male reproductive system is located outside of your abdominal cavity or pelvis. The external parts of the male reproductive system include the penis, the scrotum and the testicles.

Reproductive Tract Anatomy and Physiology of the Cow

These parts are internal; the vagina meets the external organs at the vulva, which includes the labia, clitoris, and urethra. The vagina is attached to the uterus through the cervix, while the uterus is attached to the ovaries via the fallopian tubes. At certain intervals, the ovaries release an ovum, which passes through the fallopian tube into the uterus. If, in this transit, it meets with sperm, the sperm penetrates and merges with the egg, fertilizing it. The fertilization usually occurs in the oviducts, but can happen in the uterus itself. The zygote then implants itself in the wall of the uterus, where it begins the process of embryogenesis and morphogenesis. When developed enough to survive outside the womb, the cervix dilates and contractions of the uterus propel the fetus through the birth canal vagina.

26.5A: Anatomy of the Female Reproductive System

The female reproductive system functions to produce gametes and reproductive hormones, just like the male reproductive system; however, it also has the additional task of supporting the developing fetus and delivering it to the outside world. Unlike its male counterpart, the female reproductive system is located primarily inside the pelvic cavity. Recall that the ovaries are the female gonads. The gamete they produce is called an oocyte. Figure 1.

Uterus , also called womb , an inverted pear-shaped muscular organ of the female reproductive system , located between the bladder and the rectum. It functions to nourish and house a fertilized egg until the fetus , or offspring, is ready to be delivered. The uterus has four major regions: the fundus is the broad curved upper area in which the fallopian tubes connect to the uterus; the body, the main part of the uterus, starts directly below the level of the fallopian tubes and continues downward until the uterine walls and cavity begin to narrow; the isthmus is the lower, narrow neck region; and the lowest section, the cervix , extends downward from the isthmus until it opens into the vagina. The uterus is 6 to 8 cm 2.

These parts are internal; the vagina meets the external organs at the vulva, which includes the labia, clitoris, and urethra. The vagina is attached to the uterus through the cervix, while the uterus is attached to the ovaries via the fallopian tubes.

Male Reproductive System

If your institution subscribes to this resource, and you don't have a MyAccess Profile, please contact your library's reference desk for information on how to gain access to this resource from off-campus. Please consult the latest official manual style if you have any questions regarding the format accuracy. The female reproductive system consists of the paired ovaries and oviducts or uterine tubes , the uterus, the vagina, and the external genitalia Figure 22—1. This system produces the female gametes oocytes , provides the environment for fertilization, and holds the embryo during its complete development through the fetal stage until birth. As with male gonads, the ovaries produce steroidal sex hormones that control organs of the reproductive system and influence other organs.

Unique for its role in human reproduction, a gamete is a specialized sex cell carrying 23 chromosomes—one half the number in body cells. At fertilization, the chromosomes in one male gamete, called a sperm or spermatozoon , combine with the chromosomes in one female gamete, called an oocyte. The paired testes are a crucial component in this process, as they produce both sperm and androgens, the hormones that support male reproductive physiology.


This chapter will review the female and male reproductive systems and the menstrual cycle as it relates to reproduction. Female Reproductive Anatomy and​.


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Расстрельная камера, мысленно усмехнулся. Халохот оценил расстояние до входа. Семь ступеней. Он мысленно прорепетировал предстоящее убийство. Если у входа на площадку взять вправо, можно увидеть самый дальний левый угол площадки, даже еще не выйдя на. Если Беккер окажется там, Халохот сразу же выстрелит. Если нет, он войдет и будет двигаться на восток, держа в поле зрения правый угол, единственное место, где мог находиться Беккер.

Беккер понял, что перегнул палку. Он нервно оглядел коридор. Его уже выставили сегодня из больницы, и он не хотел, чтобы это случилось еще. - Nimm deinen FuB weg! - прорычал немец.  - Уберите ногу. Взгляд Беккера упал на пухлые пальцы мужчины.

Она не могла поверить, что такой алгоритм может быть создан, но ведь доказательство налицо - у нее перед глазами. ТРАНСТЕКСТ не может с ним справиться. Сьюзан подумала о Стратморе, о том, как мужественно он переносит тяжесть этого испытания, делая все необходимое, сохраняя спокойствие во время крушения. Иногда она видела в нем что-то от Дэвида. У них было много общего: настойчивость, увлеченность своим делом, ум. Иногда ей казалось, что Стратмор без нее пропадет; ее любовь к криптографии помогала коммандеру отвлечься от завихрений политики, напоминая о молодости, отданной взламыванию шифров. Но и она тоже многим была обязана Стратмору: он стал ее защитником в мире рвущихся к власти мужчин, помогал ей делать карьеру, оберегал ее и, как сам часто шутил, делал ее сны явью.

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