History Of Computer And Their Generation Pdf
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- The five generations of computers
- Computer - Generations
- How many generations of computers are there?
A computer is a machine that can be instructed to carry out sequences of arithmetic or logical operations automatically via computer programming. Modern computers have the ability to follow generalized sets of operations, called programs. These programs enable computers to perform an extremely wide range of tasks. A "complete" computer including the hardware , the operating system main software , and peripheral equipment required and used for "full" operation can be referred to as a computer system. This term may as well be used for a group of computers that are connected and work together, in particular a computer network or computer cluster.
The five generations of computers
The first counting device was used by the primitive people. They used sticks, stones and bones as counting tools. As human mind and technology improved with time more computing devices were developed. Some of the popular computing devices starting with the first to recent ones are described below;. The history of computer begins with the birth of abacus which is believed to be the first computer. It is said that Chinese invented Abacus around 4, years ago.
Computer - Generations
Alfred is a long-time teacher and computer enthusiast who works with and troubleshoots a wide range of computing devices. The generations of computers illustrates the miniaturization of transistors and integrated circuit chips over the years. Generations of computers have seen changes based on evolving technologies. With each new generation, computer circuitry, size, and parts have been miniaturized, the processing and speed doubled, memory got larger, and usability and reliability improved. Note that the timeline specified for each generation is tentative and not definite. The generations are actually based on evolving chip technology rather than any particular time frame. The five generations of computers are characterized by the electrical current flowing through the processing mechanisms listed below:.
How many generations of computers are there?
In particular, when viewing the movies you should look for two things: The progression in hardware representation of a bit of data: Vacuum Tubes s - one bit on the size of a thumb; Transistors s and s - one bit on the size of a fingernail; Integrated Circuits s and 70s - thousands of bits on the size of a hand Silicon computer chips s and on - millions of bits on the size of a finger nail. The progression of the ease of use of computers: Almost impossible to use except by very patient geniuses s ; Programmable by highly trained people only s and s ; Useable by just about anyone s and on. Mauchly and J. Presper Eckert at the University of Pennsylvania. ENIAC was also the first machine to use more than 2, vacuum tubes, using nearly 18, vacuum tubes.
Computers are such an integral part of our everyday life now most people take them and what they have added to life totally for granted. Even more so the generation who have grown from infancy within the global desktop and laptop revolution since the s. The history of the computer goes back several decades however and there are five definable generations of computers.
Digital computer , any of a class of devices capable of solving problems by processing information in discrete form. It operates on data, including magnitudes, letters, and symbols, that are expressed in binary code —i. By counting, comparing, and manipulating these digits or their combinations according to a set of instructions held in its memory , a digital computer can perform such tasks as to control industrial processes and regulate the operations of machines; analyze and organize vast amounts of business data; and simulate the behaviour of dynamic systems e. A brief treatment of digital computers follows. For full treatment, see computer science: Basic computer components. A typical digital computer system has four basic functional elements: 1 input-output equipment , 2 main memory , 3 control unit, and 4 arithmetic-logic unit. Any of a number of devices is used to enter data and program instructions into a computer and to gain access to the results of the processing operation.
The history of computing hardware starting at is marked by the conversion from vacuum tube to solid-state devices such as transistors and then integrated circuit IC chips. Around - , discrete transistors started being considered sufficiently reliable and economical that they made further vacuum tube computers uncompetitive. Metal-oxide-semiconductor MOS large-scale integration LSI technology subsequently led to the development of semiconductor memory in the mid-to-late s and then the microprocessor in the early s.
Это было его любимое изречение. ГЛАВА 32 Дэвид Беккер остановился в коридоре у номера 301. Он знал, что где-то за этой витиеватой резной дверью находится кольцо. Вопрос национальной безопасности.
Стратмор пожал плечами.
Нетвердой походкой Сьюзан подошла к главному выходу- двери, через которую она вошла сюда несколько часов. Отчаянное нажатие на кнопки неосвещенной панели ничего не дало: массивная дверь не поддалась. Они в ловушке, шифровалка превратилась в узилище.