difference between primary data and secondary data in research pdf

Difference Between Primary Data And Secondary Data In Research Pdf

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In a time when data is becoming easily accessible to researchers all over the world, the practicality of utilizing secondary data for research is becoming more prevalent, same as its questionable authenticity when compared with primary data.

Primary data are fresh new information collected for the first time by a researcher himself for a particular purpose.

Primary Data VS Secondary Data

In a time when data is becoming easily accessible to researchers all over the world, the practicality of utilizing secondary data for research is becoming more prevalent, same as its questionable authenticity when compared with primary data. These 2 types of data, when considered for research is a double-edged sword because it can equally make a research project as well as it can mar it.

In a nutshell, primary data and secondary data both have their advantages and disadvantages. Therefore, when carrying out research, it is left for the researcher to weigh these factors and choose the better one. It is therefore important for one to study the similarities and differences between these data types so as to make proper decisions when choosing a better data type for research work. Primary data is the kind of data that is collected directly from the data source without going through any existing sources.

It is mostly collected specially for a research project and may be shared publicly to be used for other research. Primary data is often reliable, authentic, and objective in as much as it was collected with the purpose of addressing a particular research problem. It is noteworthy that primary data is not commonly collected because of the high cost of implementation. A common example of primary data is the data collected by organizations during market research, product research, and competitive analysis.

This data is collected directly from its original source which in most cases are the existing and potential customers. Most of the people who collect primary data are government authorized agencies, investigators, research-based private institutions, etc. Secondary data is the data that has been collected in the past by someone else but made available for others to use.

They are usually once primary data but become secondary when used by a third party. Secondary data are usually easily accessible to researchers and individuals because they are mostly shared publicly. This, however, means that the data are usually general and not tailored specifically to meet the researcher's needs as primary data does.

For example, when conducting a research thesis, researchers need to consult past works done in this field and add findings to the literature review. Some other things like definitions and theorems are secondary data that are added to the thesis to be properly referenced and cited accordingly. Some common sources of secondary data include trade publications, government statistics, journals, etc. In most cases, these sources cannot be trusted as authentic. Read More: What is Secondary Data?

Primary data is the type of data that is collected by researchers directly from main sources while secondary data is the data that has already been collected through primary sources and made readily available for researchers to use for their own research. The main difference between these 2 definitions is the fact that primary data is collected from the main source of data, while secondary data is not. The secondary data made available to researchers from existing sources are formerly primary data which was collected for research in the past.

The availability of secondary data is highly dependent on the primary researcher's decision to share their data publicly or not. An example of primary data is the national census data collected by the government while an example of secondary data is the data collected from online sources. The secondary data collected from an online source could be the primary data collected by another researcher.

For example, the government, after successfully the national census, they share the results in newspapers, online magazines, press releases, etc. Another government agency that is trying to allocate the state budget for healthcare, education, etc. With access to this information, the number of children who needs education can be analyzed and hard to determine the amount that should be allocated to the education sector.

Similarly, knowing the number of old people will help in allocating funds for them in the health sector. The type of data provided by primary data is real-time, while the data provided by secondary data is stale. Researchers are able to have access to the most recent data when conducting primary research , which may not be the case for secondary data. Secondary data have to depend on primary data that has been collected in the past to perform research.

In some cases, the researcher may be lucky that the data is collected close to the time that he or she is conducting research. Therefore, reducing the amount of difference between the secondary data being used and the recent data. Researchers are usually very involved in the primary data collection process, while secondary data is quick and easy to collect.

This is due to the fact that primary research is mostly longitudinal. Therefore, researchers have to spend a long time performing research, recording information, and analyzing the data. This data can be collected and analyzed within a few hours when conducting secondary research. For example, an organization may spend a long time analyzing the market size for transport companies looking to talk into the ride-hailing sector.

A potential investor will take this data and use it to inform his decision of investing in the sector or not. Primary data is available in crude form while secondary data is available in a refined form. That is, secondary data is usually made available to the public in a simple form for a layman to understand while primary data are usually raw and will have to be simplified by the researcher. Secondary data are this way because they have previously been broken down by researchers who collected the primary data afresh.

A good example is the Thomson Reuters annual market reports that are made available to the public. When Thomson Reuters collect this data afresh, they are usually raw and may be difficult to understand. They simplify the results of this data by visualizing it with graphs, charts, and explanations in words.

Primary data can be collected using surveys and questionnaires while secondary data are collected using the library, bots, etc. The different ones between these data collection tools are glaring and can it be interchangeably used.

When collecting primary data, researchers lookout for a tool that can be easily used and can collect reliable data. One of the best primary data collection tools that satisfy this condition is Formplus.

Formplus is a web-based primary data collection tool that helps researchers collect reliable data while simultaneously increasing the response rate from respondents. Primary data sources include; Surveys, observations, experiments, questionnaires, focus groups, interviews, etc. These sources vary explicitly and there is no intersection between the primary and secondary data sources.

Primary data sources are sources that require a deep commitment from researchers and require interaction with the subject of study. Secondary data, on the other hand, do not require interaction with the subject of study before it can be collected. In most cases, secondary researchers do not have any interaction with the subject of research. Primary data is always specific to the researcher's needs, while secondary data may or may not be specific to the researcher's need.

It depends solely on the kind of data the researcher was able to lay hands on. Secondary researchers may be lucky to have access to data tailored specifically to meet their needs, which mag is not the case in some cases. For example, a market researcher researching the purchasing power of people from a particular community may not have access to the data of the subject community. Alternatively, there may be another community with a similar standard of living to the subject community whose data is available.

The researcher mag uses to settle for this data and use it to inform his conclusion on the subject community. Some common advantages of primary data are its authenticity, specific nature, and up to date information while secondary data is very cheap and not time-consuming.

Primary data is very reliable because it is usually objective and collected directly from the original source. It also gives up to date information about a research topic compared to secondary data. Secondary day, on the other hand, is not expensive making it easy for people to conduct secondary research. It doesn't take so much time and most of the secondary data sources can be accessed for free. The disadvantage of primary data is the cost and time spent on data collection while secondary data may be outdated or irrelevant.

Primary data incur so much cost and takes time because of the processes involved in carrying out primary research. Apart from the time required, the cost of doing this may be relatively high.

Secondary data may be outdated and irrelevant. In fact, researchers have to surf through irrelevant data before finally having access to the data relevant to the research purpose. Primary data is more accurate and reliable while secondary data is relatively less reliable and accurate. This is mainly because the secondary data sources are not regulated and are subject to personal bias.

A good example of this is business owners who lay bloggers to write good reviews about their product just to gain more customers. This is not the case with primary data which is collected by being a researcher himself. One of the researcher's aim when gathering primary data for research will be gathering accurate data so as to arrive at correct conclusions. Therefore, biases will be avoided at all costs e. Primary data is very expensive while secondary data is economical. When working on a low budget, it is better for researchers to work with secondary data, then analyze it to uncover new trends.

In fact, a researcher might work with both primary data and secondary data for one research. This is usually very advisable in cases whereby the available secondary data does not fully meet the research needs. Therefore, a little extension on the available data will be done and cost will also be saved. For example, a researcher may require a market report from to while the available reports stop at The time required to collect primary data is usually long while that required to collect secondary data is usually short.

The primary data collection process is sometimes longitudinal in nature. Therefore, researchers may need to observe the research subject for some time while taking down important data. For example, when observing the behavior of a group of people or particular species, researchers have to observe them for a while.

Secondary data can, however, be collected in a matter of minutes and analyzed to dead conclusions—taking a shorter time when compared to primary data. In some rare cases, especially when collecting little data, secondary data may take a longer time because of difficulty consulting different data sources to find the right data. Secondary data was once primary data when it was newly collected by the first researcher.

The content of the data collected does not change and therefore has the same content with primary data. It doesn't matter if it was further visualized in the secondary form, the content does not change.

A common example of these are definitions, theorems, and postulates that were made years ago but still remain the same. Primary data and secondary data are both used in research and statistics. They can be used to carry out the same kind of research in these fields depending on data availability. This is because secondary data and primary data have the same content.

Difference Between Primary and Secondary Data

The methodology allows the subject to provide a firsthand, first-person account. Data collection can be resultant of a number of methods, which include interviews, focus groups, surveys, telephone interviews, field notes,. Based on our empirical experience of the world, it can be described as a way of justifying what is to be right with quantifiable evidence. According to the title, knowledge seems useful yet we neglect some of it and refine it to make it become a new knowledge by based on further discoveries. Vygotsky's idea is the starting point for a theory of understanding which claims people construct their knowledge basing new information in the already existent hypotheses and ideas of the environment and memories of experiences that the treasure. This theory called "Constructivism" focuses in the way and the tools which people use to help themselves learn. The proposal states how knowledge is built, rather than sporadically materialized.

Source: Kumar () As the name advocates, primary data is information that is collected first hand and for the first time by the researcher.

Primary Sources of Data and Secondary Sources of Data

Primary sources of data collection have their advantages such as addressing specific research problems and applications in data management and storage. On the other hand, secondary data gathering has also a range of benefits, best practices, and important meaning in the marketing and data world. For each type of business to be successful, it is absolutely crucial to have reliable information for the market and customer characteristics. This is where intensive research methods and data collection tools come to make it possible.

Marketing research is a process of gathering, analyzing, and reporting of data relating to any problem in the marketing field. Entire process involves the data-related activities. Data are the raw information. For solving any marketing problem, adequate, reliable, relevant and timely data are necessary.

The Difference Between Primary and Secondary Sources of Data

Data collection plays a very crucial role in the statistical analysis. In research, there are different methods used to gather information, all of which fall into two categories, i. As the name suggests, primary data is one which is collected for the first time by the researcher while secondary data is the data already collected or produced by others. There are many differences between primary and secondary data, which are discussed in this article. But the most important difference is that primary data is factual and original whereas secondary data is just the analysis and interpretation of the primary data.

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Home Consumer Insights Market Research. Secondary research or desk research is a research method that involves using already existing data. Existing data is summarized and collated to increase the overall effectiveness of research. Secondary research includes research material published in research reports and similar documents. These documents can be made available by public libraries, websites, data obtained from already filled in surveys etc.

Primary Research is based on raw data, whereas secondary research is based on analysed and interpreted information. 3. The primary research, the data is collected by the researcher himself or by the person hired by him. As against this, the secondary research, the data collection is performed by someone else.

The Difference Between Primary and Secondary Sources of Data

Factors to Consider Before Conducting Secondary Data Analysis

Она ткнула его в ногу носком туфли. - Я сказала нет! - И, выдержав паузу, добавила: - И до вчерашней ночи это была правда. В глазах Сьюзан Дэвид был самим совершенством - насколько вообще такое. Одно только ее беспокоило: всякий раз, когда они куда-то ходили, он решительно противился тому, чтобы она сама платила за. Сьюзан не могла с этим смириться, видя, как он выкладывает за их обед свою дневную заработную плату, но спорить с ним было бесполезно. Она в конце концов перестала протестовать, но это продолжало ее беспокоить. Я зарабатываю гораздо больше, чем в состоянии потратить, - думала она, - поэтому будет вполне естественным, если я буду платить.

 - Стратмора, похоже, удивило ее недоумение.  - Мне пришлось его проинструктировать. - Проинструктировать. Относительно .

Беккер рванулся влево, в другую улочку. Он слышал собственный крик о помощи, но, кроме стука ботинок сзади и учащенного дыхания, утренняя тишина не нарушалась ничем. Беккер почувствовал жжение в боку. Наверное, за ним тянется красный след на белых камнях.

Затем он одним движением швырнул ее на пол возле своего терминала. Сьюзан упала на спину, юбка ее задралась. Верхняя пуговица блузки расстегнулась, и в синеватом свете экрана было видно, как тяжело вздымается ее грудь.

Data Used in Marketing Research: Primary and Secondary Data

Он решительно подошел к терминалу и запустил весь набор программ системных оценок ТРАНСТЕКСТА. - Твое сокровище в беде, коммандер, - пробормотал .

Сьюзан заглянула в распечатку через плечо Джаббы. - Выходит, нас атакует всего лишь первый набросок червя Танкадо. - Набросок или отшлифованный до блеска экземпляр, - проворчал Джабба, - но он дал нам под зад коленом.

Двухцветный равнодушно кивнул. - Где оно? - не отставал Беккер. - Понятия не имею.  - Парень хмыкнул.

Тело же его было бледно-желтого цвета - кроме крохотного красноватого кровоподтека прямо над сердцем. Скорее всего от искусственного дыхания и массажа сердца, - подумал Беккер.  - Жаль, что бедняге это не помогло. Он принялся рассматривать руки покойного.

Хорошая новость. Звонок из Соединенных Штатов. Он улыбнулся. Значит, все правда.

Где-то в темноте, казалось, прямо над ними, послышались пронзительные гудки. Стратмор повернулся, и Сьюзан сразу же его потеряла. В страхе она вытянула вперед руки, но коммандер куда-то исчез. Там, где только что было его плечо, оказалась черная пустота. Она шагнула вперед, но и там была та же пустота.

Беккер не мог выдавить ни слова. Проваливай и умри. Он не верил своим глазам.


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Secondary data analysis involves a researcher using the information that someone else has gathered for his or her own purposes.


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