fundamental of computer and information technology pdf

Fundamental Of Computer And Information Technology Pdf

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Computer is an advanced electronic device that takes raw data as input from the user and processes these data under the control of set of instructions called program and gives the result output and saves output for the future use. It can process both numerical and non-numerical arithmetic and logical calculations. It works the principle of I-P-O Cycle.

[PDF] Computer Fundamentals By P. K. Sinha Free Download

Home Beginners Tutorials Computer Fundamentals Tutorial Computers have become one of the most essential parts of human life. At present, computers can be easily seen in almost every sector or field even where it is most unexpected.

There can be several different reasons why computers are actually required. We can summarize the reasons for the requirement of computers in three words: efficiency, accuracy, and reliability. Nowadays, computers are making jobs easier for people.

Computers can be used in everything from entertainment to communication to navigation to research. That is why this era is called the era of IT Information Technology. And now, one cannot imagine a world without computers. Therefore, it is very necessary to have knowledge of Computer basics.

In this article, we have covered all the basics of the computer such as what is a computer, definition of computer, basic functions of a computer, generations of computer, classification or types of computer, advantages, and disadvantages of a computer , etc. Prerequisites There is no special requirement to learn the concepts of Computer fundamentals Tutorial. You just need to read the article properly. We have a well built and organized series of topics under Computer Fundamentals to help you in learning computer concepts from scratch.

Audience Tutorials on TutorialsMate are designed to help beginners and professionals. Our Computer Fundamentals Tutorial will help beginners to master in Computer. Problem Our Computer Fundamentals Tutorial is designed by professionals, and we assure you that you will not find any kind of problem. In case there is any mistake, we request you to submit the problem using the contact form or directly send us a mail at TutorialsMate.

What is Computer definition? Note - The first mechanical computer was designed in by Charles Babbage. It was called ' Analytical Engine '. It was the first general-purpose computer. Charles Babbage is known as the father of the computer.

Input The data is entered into the computer with the help of input devices. Like other electronic devices, a computer takes data in raw form binary form. The user can enter the data in several formats such as the collection of letters, numbers, images, etc. The input devices convert the data in the binary form so that the computer can read the data.

It is the internal process where the data is processed according to the instructions given to the computer. The data is executed sequentially and sent for further processing. Suggested Article : Why is my computer so slow? Output The output is the information provided by the computer after the entire processing.

It is also known as the result that can be stored in the storage devices for further use. The output devices retrieve the processed data from the computer and convert the data into a human-readable form. It is used to store data or instructions before and after processing. Generally, storage is divided into the following types: Primary Storage Primary storage devices store the inputted data and immediate calculation results. The data stored in primary storage is temporary and will be lost if they are disconnected from the power source.

Random Access Memory is an example of primary storage. The data stored in the secondary storage devices is secure even if there is no power supply. Hard Disk Drive is the widely used secondary storage. At present, the term concludes both the hardware and software.

There can be different changes like making the device smaller, cheaper, more smart or powerful, etc. There are five generations of the computer, which are listed below with approximate period: First Generation - Based on - Electronic Valves Vacuum Tubes. Second Generation — Based on - Transistors. Read More : Generations of Computer Uses of Computer As we have discussed above, the computer is the need for the digital era. It is helping people to complete their tasks in hours that were before taking several days or months.

Analog computers are the most complicated machines for computation and process control. Examples of continuous data are pressure, temperature, voltage, weight, and speed, etc. Digital Computer — Digital computers are personal computers. These are the widely used computers. These are commonly used for processing the data with a number using digits by utilizing the binary number system.

These computers are intended to perform arithmetic and logical operations at a very high rate. Hybrid Computer — Hybrid computers are the combination of analog computers and digital computers. These are as fast as analog computers and include memory and precision as digital computers. Types of Computer Supercomputer — Supercomputers are large and require huge space for the installation.

They are the fastest and most expensive computers compared to others. They are used for performing huge complex calculations. Mainframe Computer — Mainframe Computers are smaller than supercomputers, still, they comparatively huge.

These are not as fast as supercomputers. These are expensive as well as take huge space for the entire setup. Mainframe computers can store huge amounts of data and they are capable to handle large calculations. These computers are usually found in banks and educational sectors. Microcomputer — Microcomputers are inexpensive and support multi-user platform.

These types of computers are mostly used by small organizations. Microcomputers are slower compared to supercomputers and mainframe computers.

Microcomputers are called Personal Computer PC. Mini Computer — Mini computers are cheaper and easy to carry.

Notebook and Tablet are examples of minicomputers. Advantages and Disadvantages of Computer Just like a coin, a computer system also has two sides: Advantages and Disadvantages.

While there are several disadvantages of a computer system, but, the advantages overcome them. Typically, a computer system is useless without software. There are two types of computer software, as mentioned below: System Software System software connect the user and the hardware of the computer to interact with each other. System software provide the basic functionalities required to operate the computer system. These type of software provide an environment or platform for the other software to work on.

System software run in the background. Example : Operating systems e. Application Software Application software are customized software designed for personal use.

These type of software help users for performing basic tasks such as online research, setting an alarm, designing, or even playing games.

The application software runs in the frontend and mostly used by the end-users. Computer Hardware Computer hardware are the physical components or parts that jointly form a computer system. There are different types of hardware.

Depending on the structure of the computer system, hardware can be installed inside or outside of the computer physical body. While there are some disadvantages of computers, however, the advantages of computers overcome those disadvantages. Therefore, it is very important to have at least basic knowledge of computers to complete in this era of technology. Computer Fundamentals Tutorial: Computer Basics.

Computers have become one of the most essential parts of human life. There is no special requirement to learn the concepts of Computer fundamentals Tutorial. Tutorials on TutorialsMate are designed to help beginners and professionals.

Our Computer Fundamentals Tutorial is designed by professionals, and we assure you that you will not find any kind of problem. Also Check : Block Diagram of Computer.

There are four basic functions of the computer: Input, Processing, Output, and Storage. The data is entered into the computer with the help of input devices. Some of the main input devices of computer systems are listed below:.

Read More : Input Devices of Computer. The processing is the core functionality of the computer system. The output is the information provided by the computer after the entire processing.

The widely used output devices of computer systems are listed below:. Storage is a crucial part of the computer system. Primary storage devices store the inputted data and immediate calculation results. Secondary storage devices are used to store the data permanently for future use. Also Check : Types of Computer Memory.

Computer Science Fundamentals Course (CS5160)

Download P. Sinha is very useful for Computer Science and Engineering CSE students and also who are all having an interest to develop their knowledge in the field of Computer Science as well as Information Technology. This Book provides an clear examples on each and every topics covered in the contents of the book to provide an every user those who are read to develop their knowledge. Vanderbei Free Download. The reason is the electronic devices divert your attention and also cause strains while reading eBooks.

Computer Fundamentals PDF Free Download Parts Software & Hardware

Home Beginners Tutorials Computer Fundamentals Tutorial Computers have become one of the most essential parts of human life. At present, computers can be easily seen in almost every sector or field even where it is most unexpected. There can be several different reasons why computers are actually required. We can summarize the reasons for the requirement of computers in three words: efficiency, accuracy, and reliability. Nowadays, computers are making jobs easier for people.

Programming skills rusty or nonexistent? This course is for you. The demand for computer scientists and computer engineers is strong and growing. Students without strong programming skills have a hard time taking advantage of these opportunities.

Computer Science Fundamentals Course (CS5160)

Generations of Computers. Number System Data Representation in Computers. Communication Protocols. Windows Explorer Exploring hard disk, coping and Moving files and folder from one drive to another, formatting floppy drive, and other explorer facilities. Communication Dial up Networking, Browsing the wet with Internet explorer. Multiple users Features of Windows Creating and deleting user, changing user password etc. Converting defining function keys, Keyboard Macros Creating and using.

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What are the basics of computer science? Computer science is the study of what computers can do, and the processes that make them function. Computer science is extremely relevant in our daily lives, at school, work, and in our free time. Computers and computer programs are everywhere in our everyday lives. It is also recommended for anyone interested in coding to get a handle on the basics of computer science before diving into coding.

Class and Subject List

A computer is an electrically powered device or set of devices which works under the control of a stored programme. It automatically receives data, process data and by controlling the whole process of operation, the desired goal is established. Hence a computer is 1. The computer can only work with numbers, not letters, sounds or pictures. All forms of data are converted to numbers for processing.

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