Science And Pseudoscience In Clinical Psychology By Lilienfeld Pdf Page 118
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Causality of Psychological Injury pp Cite as. There are numerous issues that must be addressed if an assessment is to be both valid and reliable. In addition, the evaluator must be aware of relevant research, professional and ethical issues, the limits of what an evaluation can accomplish, the importance of maintaining a consistent and appropriate role, the need for independence and impartiality, and problems associated with biases. By paying attention to these issues, the evaluator can adequately address them in an appropriate manner.
2015, Number 2
Dunbar 8 , Maria Hartwig 9 , Siegfried L. Lilienfeld 21 , 45 , Miles L. Honts 35 , Antonio L. Burgoon 41 , Steven M. Louis, United States. For security and justice professionals e. However, despite the scope of the scientific work carried out on this subject, professionals can turn to programs, methods, and approaches that fail to reflect the state of science. The objective of this article is to examine i concepts of nonverbal communication conveyed by these programs, methods, and approaches, but also ii the consequences of their use e.
To achieve this objective, we describe the scope of scientific research on nonverbal communication. Finally, we outline five hypotheses to explain why some organizations in the fields of security and justice are turning to pseudoscience and pseudoscientific techniques. We conclude the article by inviting these organizations to work with the international community of scholars who have scientific expertise in nonverbal communication and lie and truth detection to implement evidence-based practices.
Cite this article as: Denault, V. The analysis of nonverbal communication: The dangers of pseudoscience in security and justice contexts. Nonverbal behaviors e. Lying, however, cannot be detected at a glance as is often stated on the Internet. The belief that gaze avoidance allows lie detection is a widespread misconception The Global Deception Research Team, In fact, scholars who have scientific expertise in lie and truth detection agree that there are no nonverbal behaviors that are present in all liars and are absent in all people who tell the truth.
In addition, when facial expressions and gestures are documented as having a link to lying, this link is typically weak DePaulo et al. In fact, research conducted by the international community of scholars who have scientific expertise in nonverbal communication can inform understanding of a wide range of human behaviors Burgoon et al. Despite the wealth of peer-reviewed knowledge on nonverbal communication, security and justice professionals can readily find widely disseminated programs, methods, and approaches that fail to reflect the state of science and promote pseudoscientific claims.
The objective of this article is to examine i concepts of nonverbal communication conveyed by these programs, methods, and approaches, but also ii the consequences of their use.
To achieve this objective, we will describe the scope of scientific research on nonverbal communication. Subsequently, we will examine a program aimed at identifying aviation security threats through monitoring the nonverbal behaviors and appearance of passengers at U. Finally, we will outline five hypotheses to explain why some organizations in the fields of security and justice are turning to pseudoscience and pseudoscientific techniques.
We will conclude the article by inviting these organizations to work with the international community of scholars who have scientific expertise in nonverbal communication and lie and truth detection to implement evidence-based practices.
Many of the issues facing security and justice professionals involve the concealment and falsification of information e. When it comes to developing better professional practices to address these issues, the analysis of nonverbal communication may, on the face of it, seem foolproof.
Indeed, it is not uncommon to read or hear that facial expressions and gestures can be used to detect lies, and that they would be more valid in this regard than words.
Security and justice professionals would therefore have at their fingertips, for a few thousand, or even a few hundred dollars, programs, methods, and approaches to know what the other person thinks but does not say. As we will demonstrate, the reliance on such concepts is fundamentally misguided, because decisions of security and justice professionals could be distorted and harm the life or liberty of individuals. Although the detection of lies or mal-intent may be of interest to these professionals, it represents only a small part of the scientific research being conducted on nonverbal communication.
As Plusquellec and Denault pointed out, the influence of culture, age, and mental illness on nonverbal communication, as well as the recognition of facial expressions and interpersonal sensitivity, are just some of the subjects receiving attention from a community of researchers from all over the world.
Nonverbal communication is not a subject of scientific research in which psychology alone is concerned. For example, psychiatry, criminology, communication, linguistics, biology, sociology, anthropology, computer science, and ethology also focus on nonverbal communication. Regardless of the discipline, the affiliation of researchers, and their fields of research, the knowledge they develop is of great value because the process of critical appraisal of knowledge the publication process , which is a central building block in establishing confidence in the results of a research project, remains the same.
Let us examine briefly just how this process unfolds. When completing a research project, the researcher generally prepares a manuscript describing the reasons and theoretical rationale for the study, as well as all the steps preceding its conclusions, including the methodology, data collection, and analyses.
All these details will eventually allow the international scientific community to scrutinize the research project to provide support or criticism of the results in full knowledge of the facts e. All these details will also provide other researchers the opportunity to replicate the study and compare the results Asendorpf et al.
The manuscript is then submitted to the editor of a scientific journal who sends it to experts on the subject for a first critical evaluation. Manuscripts are commonly reviewed double-blind, meaning that the names of the reviewers are not known to the researcher and the name of the researcher is not known to the reviewers. The reviewers provide feedback to the editor. Despite the extent of scientific research on nonverbal communication Burgoon et al. The consequences of the misuses of nonverbal communication are important enough to question the responsibility of organizations in the fields of security and justice that have used either SPOT, the BAI, or synergology.
Standing for Screening of Passengers by Observation Techniques, SPOT is a program aimed at identifying aviation security threats through monitoring the nonverbal behaviors and appearance of passengers. This program was implemented at numerous U. Government Accountability Office, , p. Government Accountability Office, According to the TSA, SPOT was based on several sources, namely learning tools from federal agencies, comments from law enforcement officers e.
Congress in Committee on Science, Space, and Technology, However, at the time of the implementation of SPOT, the validity of identifying aviation security threats through monitoring the nonverbal behaviors and appearance of passengers was unknown.
The effectiveness of identifying aviation security threats using SPOT versus random questioning i. According to the TSA, SPOT was implemented because it was low cost, was easy to set up, and provided an additional security measure for risks that were not covered by other measures U. These individuals were recruited from TSA employees who had performed passenger and baggage screening.
They received four days of classroom and three days of field training and took an exam. The BDOs were required, among other things, to memorize the list of indicators to identify potential terrorists e. An exchange with a passenger could be initiated during this observation procedure.
Finally, the BDOs were to enter information about their intervention into a database U. Government Accountability Office, , , In , the U.
Three years later, the GAO recommended that the U. Congress consider the absence of scientific evidence on the effectiveness of identifying aviation security threats through the nonverbal behaviors of passengers in its SPOT funding decisions U.
Government Accountability Office. Indeed, of the sources cited, only 20 were research articles reporting data and methods. Of the remaining sources, 21 were literature reviews that did not report adequate information, and were opinion papers or documents that provided irrelevant information for establishing the scientific basis of SPOT e. The 20 research articles were independently evaluated by two analysts: 5 articles did not meet generally accepted research standards and 12 did not validate the behavioral indicators for which they were cited by the TSA.
One source justified seven of these indicators and two sources justified only one. In other words, the TSA did not have any evidentiary source to support the validity of 28 of the 36 indicators on the revised list used by the BDOs to identify aviation security threats 2. Following the report, as did the TSA in U. For example, it was reported that a passenger identified by BDOs was carrying 4. In addition, the TSA replied that the BDOs had been reassigned as Transportation Security Officers required to perform behavioral analysis for a few hours a day to maintain their skills.
However, given the lack of scientific evidence on the effectiveness of identifying aviation security threats through the nonverbal behaviors of passengers, the GAO expressed concern that behavior analysis was still being used U. It should be noted that proponents of SPOT may claim that this program worked because a terrorist act such as that of September 11, has not occurred again.
However, this is another logical fallacy. Furthermore, security and justice organizations should not use tragedies to justify dubious programs, methods, and approaches and avoid putting in place programs, methods, and approaches that actually work.
Indeed, rather than detecting terrorists, behavioral indicators have led BDOs to target immigrants. Could the financial resources allocated to the TSA e. The TSA, however, does not appear to have questioned its approach following the report of the U.
Indeed, the Boston Globe recently revealed the existence of Quiet Skies, a TSA surveillance program where travelers who are not under investigation and not on a terrorist watch list are monitored by federal agents before they board an aircraft. This surveillance was partly based on behavioral indicators as dubious as those of SPOT e.
In other words, current scientific knowledge on nonverbal communication suggests that security and justice professionals should not rely on the observation of behavioral indicators or combinations of some of them in face-to-face interactions to detect terrorists.
Dubious concepts regarding nonverbal communication, however, continue to be used, not only by Transportation Security Officers, but also by professionals from other backgrounds.
Standing for Behavior Analysis Interview, the BAI is the first step of the Reid technique, an interrogation technique in which more than , people have reportedly been trained John E. Essentially, in this first step, an investigator conducts a non-accusatory interview with a suspect. For example, the BAI claims that some nonverbal behaviors are linked with deception e. In addition, the investigator will ensure, by various means, that the suspect cannot deny involvement e.
Following the incriminating statement, the investigator requests details and proceeds to obtain a written statement Inbau et al. Although it has many followers, especially in the United States, the Reid technique can lead to miscarriages of justice e.
For example, according to Inbau et al. For example, Inbau et al. This call to caution, however, is of no use. In addition, Inbau et al.
The same goes for precautions regarding specific behaviors. For example, regarding the lack of eye contact, Inbau et al. Worse still, in the case of the lack of eye contact, scientific research on nonverbal communication has even shown that it is not a valid sign of lying DePaulo et al.
In many other contexts, the dubious meanings that the BAI assigns to verbal and nonverbal behaviors might, on the face of it, appear amusing. When used by security and justice professionals, however, they can lead both innocent and guilty persons to be subjected to a psychologically coercive adversarial interrogation and increase the risk of innocent people especially juveniles and other vulnerable persons making false confessions e.
Among the hand movements, micro itching i. In total, more than 50 different points on the face would have different meanings when scratched Turchet, , ,
2015, Number 2
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DOI: However, despite the scope of the scientific work carried out on this subject, professionals can turn to programs, methods, and approaches that fail to reflect the state of science. The objective of this article is to examine i concepts of nonverbal communication conveyed by these programs, methods, and approaches, but also ii the consequences of their use e.