history of jammu and kashmir after 1947 pdf

History Of Jammu And Kashmir After 1947 Pdf

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The war between India and Pakistan was the second conflict between the two countries over the status of the state of Jammu and Kashmir. The clash did not resolve this dispute, but it did engage the United States and the Soviet Union in ways that would have important implications for subsequent superpower involvement in the region.

What Is Article 370, and Why Does It Matter in Kashmir?

These are the core obsessions that drive our newsroom—defining topics of seismic importance to the global economy. Our emails are made to shine in your inbox, with something fresh every morning, afternoon, and weekend. Those against this provision, Article , have argued that all three parts of the state—the Muslim-dominated Kashmir valley, the Hindu-majority Jammu, and Ladakh, which has considerable Buddhist presence—should not have laws independent of the Indian constitution. The Quit Kashmir movement against the maharaja is launched. August India gains independence from the British empire, Pakistan is created as a Muslim-majority country. Indian home minister Sardar Vallabhbhai Patel works to convince the undecided princely states to join India; Maharaja Hari Singh signs a standstill agreement with Pakistan , effectively opting for status quo. He reaches out to prime minister Jawaharlal Nehru and Patel who agree to send troops on the condition that the maharaja signs an instrument of accession IoA in favour of India pdf , handing over control of defence, foreign affairs, and communication.

India's BJP-led government is hailing its decision to strip the state of Jammu and Kashmir of autonomy after seven decades, characterising it as the correction of a "historical blunder". The area was once a princely state called Jammu and Kashmir, but it joined India in soon after the sub-continent was divided up at the end of British rule. India and Pakistan subsequently went to war over it and each came to control different parts of the territory with a ceasefire line agreed. There has been violence in the Indian-administered side - the state of Jammu and Kashmir - for 30 years due to a separatist insurgency against Indian rule. Tens of thousands of additional Indian troops were deployed, a major Hindu pilgrimage was cancelled, schools and colleges were shut, tourists were ordered to leave, telephone and internet services were suspended and regional political leaders were placed under house arrest.

Jammu and Kashmir , union territory of India until October 31, , a state , located in the northern part of the Indian subcontinent in the vicinity of the Karakoram and westernmost Himalayan mountain ranges. The territory is part of the larger region of Kashmir , which has been the subject of dispute between India, Pakistan , and China since the partition of the subcontinent in Legislation passed in August set the stage for downgrading Jammu and Kashmir from statehood to union territory status and splitting off a part of it, known as the Ladakh region, into a separate union territory. The change went into effect on October 31 of that year, though several court cases affecting its status remained pending. The information that follows describes the former state of Jammu and Kashmir, including the Ladakh region. Jammu and Kashmir, formerly one of the largest princely states of India, is bounded to the northeast by the Uygur Autonomous Region of Xinjiang China , to the east by the Tibet Autonomous Region China and the Chinese-administered portions of Kashmir, to the south by the Indian states of Himachal Pradesh and Punjab , to the southwest by Pakistan, and to the northwest by the Pakistani-administered portion of Kashmir.

Kashmir Accedes to India

The following is a timeline of the Kashmir conflict , a territorial conflict between India , Pakistan and, to a lesser degree, China. India and Pakistan have been involved in four wars and several border skirmishes over the issue. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Timeline of the conflict over Kashmir and inside Kashmir. Archived from the original on 21 December Retrieved 5 December

Located north of the Himalayan mountain range and sandwiched between Pakistan and China is a small nation known as Jammu and Kashmir. In recent weeks, the country has been a major focus on the world stage after it was officially absorbed into the Republic of India. This is a result of the scrapping of Article , a constitutional provision rooted in a complex history between India and Jammu and Kashmir. An agreement, formally known as the Instrument of Accession, was signed in after a Pakastani invasion of Jammu and Kashmir, officially making the state an Indian territory. It was then that Abdulla and Nehru began drafting Article , a provision that aimed to give the people of Jammu and Kashmir independence and democracy, while also maintaining its Indian statehood.

Jammu-Kashmir state, the partition of , accession of Kashmir to India and the UN The origins of war in South Asia: Indo-Pakistani conflicts since

A history of Article 370: the scrapping of Jammu and Kashmir’s independence and democracy

Jammu and Kashmir came into being as a single political and geographical entity following the Treaty of Amritsar between the British Government and Maharaja Gulab Singh signed on March 16, Thus a new State comprising three distinct religions of Jammu, Kashmir and Ladakh was formed with Maharaja Gulab Singh as its founder ruler. The feudal dispensation in the State, however, was too harsh for the people to live under and towards the end of a hundred years of this rule when their Indian brethren were fighting for independence from the British under the inspiring leadership of Mahatma Gandhi and Pandit Jawahar Lal Nehru, the Kashmiris led by a towering personality, the Sher-I-Kashmir Sheikh Mohammad Abdullah, rose against the autocracy. However, the people laid their lives in the cause of freedom and to uphold the ideals of secularism, equality, democracy and brotherhood.

Under this bill Jammu and Kashmir will cease to be a state. Instead, the state will be converted to two union territories, that of Ladakh and Jammu and Kashmir. Article was the constitutional provision through which the special status that Kashmir has historically held under the Indian Constitution was guaranteed. Two months after independence, on 20 October , Kashmir was attacked by a large number of armed tribesmen, forcing Hari Singh, the ruler of Kashmir to write to Governor General, Lord Mountbatten, asking India to provide military aid. Attached to this letter asking for aid was the instrument of accession to India, which was signed by Singh.

Она подавляла его своей красотой, и всякий раз, когда он оказывался рядом, язык у него заплетался. Сейчас она держалась подчеркнуто сдержанно, и это пугало его еще сильнее. - Так в чем же проблема, Фил? - спросил Стратмор, открывая холодильник.  - Может, чего-нибудь выпьешь. - Нет, а-а… нет, спасибо, сэр.

Он хотел прикоснуться к ней, но не посмел. Услышав имя Дэвида, произнесенное вслух, Сьюзан дала волю своему горю. Сначала она едва заметно вздрогнула, словно от озноба, и тут же ее захлестнула волна отчаяния. Приоткрыв дрожащие губы, она попыталась что-то сказать, но слов не последовало. Не спуская со Стратмора ледяного взгляда, Сьюзан сделала шаг вперед и протянула к нему руку с зажатым в ней предметом.


ParГ­s E.

Since , India and Pakistan have been locked in conflict over Kashmir, a majority-Muslim region in the northernmost part of India.



October Armed tribesmen from Pakistan infiltrate J&K, Hari Singh in favour of India (pdf), handing over control of defence, foreign affairs, China gains control of Aksai Chin region in J&K after a war with India.


Gaetane N.

The Kashmir Socialist Party announced in September , after careful of Jammu and Kashmir split between India and Pakistan (Pakistan later gave a portion of 20 Bamzai, Culture and Political History of Kashmir, Volume 3: Modern.


Debbie G.

Nevertheless, the historical perspective on Jammu & Kashmir needs to be put in the correct, factual cease-fire line established after the skirmishes.


Caleb P.

Kashmir, a mountainous valley that borders Pakistan and India, has been a center of conflict between the two nuclear-armed countries since the partition of British India.


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