methods of soil analysis part 2 chemical and microbiological properties pdf

Methods Of Soil Analysis Part 2 Chemical And Microbiological Properties Pdf

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Vegetation composition and plant diversity in mining disturbed tropical thorn forest of Asola-Bhatti Wildlife Sanctuary, Northern India. PDF Download. Anderson, J. Tropical soil biology and fertility: A handbook of methods. Bremner, J.

Methods of soil analysis. Part 2. Chemical and microbiological properties.

Blanca E. Mario R. Colegio de Postgraduados. Campus Montecillo. Ecosystems of the Mixtec region have been subjected to deforestation, overgrazing, and inadequate agricultural practices, and as a result soils have become deteriorated. In order to alleviate this problem, since ancestral times, the Mixtec peoples have established the lama-bordo system as a strategy to retain soil, manage superficial runoff and retain moisture.

In order to have evidence of the effectiveness of the lama-bordo system, the spatial variability was analyzed, of the physical properties texture, apparent density, field capacity and permanent wilting point and chemical properties pH, organic matter, nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, and organic carbon of the soils retained in a system in the municipality of Teotongo, Oaxaca; this system has 8.

The physical and chemical properties of the soils show high spatial variability related to the position of the sample and the age of the terrace. Para atenuar este problema, desde tiempos ancestrales los pueblos mixtecos han establecido el sistema lama-bordo como estrategia para retener suelo, manejar los escurrimientos superficiales y retener humedad. The loss of arable surface and the growing demand for foods by the population forced Mixtec producers, since Pre-Hispanic times, to take advantage of the runoffs and the erosion to favor the creation of areas for crop production, through the construction of bordos barriers that are transversal to the water flow direction in the streams, with which the eroded soil from the high parts was captured during seasonal runoffs, and which retained runoff water.

Regionally and locally, this system is known as: trenches, atajadizos , ahoyados , enlamados , jollas and lama-bordo Rivas et al. These agricultural spaces are currently used for the production of a large variety of crops, important in the diet of the inhabitants of these regions; cajete maize stands out it seeks juice or moisture , which has been selected and adapted ancestrally. In these systems the surface of the plots per producer varies from 0.

Kreznor et al. Ceddia et al. Arnhold et al. The study of spatial variability of the properties of agricultural soils is important for adequate management decision making to improve their quality Rosemary et al. The detailed digital maps of the soil show the spatial heterogeneity of the soil properties, necessary for the specific management of the soil and the plants Rosemary et al. The time of intervention in the soil alters the properties, depending on the duration and type of tilling Kilic et al.

There are different levels of variability according to the land use Mzuku et al. In the case of the terraces, soil fertility shows a differential gradient from the higher part to the lower part Dercon et al.

The lama-bordo systems are effective strategies for the accumulation of fertile soil for agriculture and conservation of soil and water. The rock, land or vegetation bordos built throughout time on the ravines favor soil accumulation; however, the continuous contribution of materials and the age of the system generate temporal and spatial variations of the physical, chemical and hydrological properties of the soils.

The objective of this research was to analyze the spatial variability of physical and chemical properties of the soil, in terms of their position within the terraces and their age in a lama-bordo system in the municipality of Teotongo, Oaxaca.

It is expected that the patterns of spatial distribution of these properties allow making deductions about the quality of the soils. It is a semiarid zone with restrictions for the production of rainfed crops due to the seasonal variation of rain, which in dry years is insufficient to cover the demands from the crops. The dominant soil group is epileptic Phaeozem, which are shallow, subject to erosion, parental material emergence, and low moisture retention capacity.

With the construction of the bordos , the eroded materials accumulate, forming deep colluvial soils in the central part and shallow on the right and left margins. The system has 11 plots terraces with surfaces that vary from 0.

Those in the low part are the oldest, have higher bordos and show lateral growth from the incorporation of new fractions of land in both margins of the hillsides. A preliminary sampling of the soils was carried out, at 0. For spatial variability, the sampling was carried out at 0. The soil samples were placed in plastic bags for their transport and processing in the laboratory; the methods used in the analysis of the properties are shown in Table 1.

A total station topographic appraisal was carried out Sokkia SET R of the bordos of each terrace; the readings were taken every 10 meters on the high part and low part of each bordo to obtain the incline between plots and to estimate the height of the terrace.

To analyze the spatial behavior of the physical and chemical parameters of the soils, the geographic location of the sampling points was used, the DEM and the specific values for each parameter, and they were interpolated with the Kygring tool in Arc GIS The statistical descriptors of each property were obtained in the statistical analysis, and they were grouped by position of sampling and age; the analysis of variance ANOVA and means comparison with the Tukey test were carried out with the Minitab 17 software.

With the construction of bordos , a gradual process of terrace formation begins, which currently has an average incline of nearly two meters between plots. The results show that the lama-bordo system is an efficient system in sediment retention and improves soil fertility, with values in its physical and chemical parameters similar to lands at rest that are not subject to any use and higher than terrains with conventional agriculture Table 2.

Results show high correlation coefficients between terrace age and silt contents 0. The oldest lama-bordo terraces have had more time to retain nutrients and aggregation processes have begun which influence the hydraulic conductivity. The percentage of K and DAP have a negative correlation 0.

The reduction of the potassium content can be due to a greater accumulation of calcium in the exchange complex. The average texture of the soils in the lama-bordo system is clay-sandy loam, with clay, silt and sand contents of The hydraulic conductivity has average values of 4. The behavior of the hydraulic properties show spatial variability in the capacity of moisture storage in the soil, which can cause a differential growth of the crops and compel to generating management strategies to maintain a more uniform growth.

The apparent density has relatively high values, 1. The margins change their soil fraction composition and the finer fractions tend to accumulate in the central part; this agrees with what was reported by Sullivan for runoff agriculture systems in southwestern United States, where they report that there are changes in the textural patterns of the plots with runoff management.

For silts and apparent density, there are statistical differences because of the position of the plot age Table 4 which may be explained because it is the easiest fraction to transport by the superficial flow; the hydraulic conductivity reported significant differences and a high coefficient of variation between the right margin and the other positions of the sample. This agrees with what was reported by Kreznor et al. The highest values of apparent density are related to the incorporation of new materials to the terrace soil; generally it is tuff.

In the percentage of clay there are significant differences due to position Table 3 ; in the center and left margin of the plot there is higher concentration of fine particles than in the right margin, indicating the water flow lines within the plots and the incorporation of coarser materials from the hillsides to the right due to management.

The percentage of silt has difference due to age Table 4 ; in the plots of the lower part 9, 10 and 11 there is higher percentage in comparison to those located in the high part plots 1, 2, 3 and 4. The percentage of sand showed difference by margin of the plot; the highest percentage of sand was reported in both margins right and left because of the presence of degraded zones and in process of repair with tilling, and a lower proportion was present in the central part of the plot.

The hydraulic conductivity had significant differences between margins, since the right margin is different from the left and center. The pH presented a low VC 3.

Figure 3 shows the geospatial variability of the chemical properties of the soil; it is observed that the organic matter contents are higher in the low part of the lama-bordo system, attributable to the age of the terrace construction and to the presence of the soil formation process of aggregation of particles and improvement of the structure, which shows the benignity of the system in the carbon capture that moves with superficial runoffs.

The variance analysis ANOVA indicates that the spatial variability of chemical properties of the soil is due to the position of the sampling, to the plot or the position of the plot in the system; significant differences were found in the contents of organic matter, potassium and organic carbon Table 5.

The system retains in average 72 Mg ha -1 of soil organic carbon SOC , which tends to accumulate in a higher proportion in the central part of the terraces with average values of Mg ha -1 Table 5. The contents of total nitrogen and phosphorus do not report significant differences despite showing high variation coefficients in their spatial distribution in the system. As was mentioned previously, soil conservation works such as the lama-bordo system capture the sediments transported by runoffs, foster infiltration, store more water in the terraces, and retain the organic matter transported by the runoff, improving the quality of soils in the sedimentation zones as reported by Mueller et al.

The potassium contents had significant differences between plots; number 1 is within the high class, compared to number 11, which is within the low class, and total organic carbon showed significant differences in terms of the margin of the plot; the center is different from the right and left margins.

The lama-bordo system captures moisture, retains soils, shapes cultivation areas, captures carbon and reduces risks in the production of crops from the presence of droughts; however, there is abandonment of this production system that translates into the destruction of the bordos and the dragging of material previously retained. The rescue of this Pre-Hispanic technology is a responsibility of the owners of plots with lama-bordo, and the government could support them as a strategy for soil conservation and for production of the grains that the rural population demands from this marginalized zone in the country.

The constant contribution of sediments and the management practices carried out by producers in the lama-bordo system provoke a high spatial variability of the physical and chemical properties of the soils, improving the contents of fine materials, organic matter, carbon, and soil quality for the production of crops. The accumulation of organic matter has a close relation with the age of the plots since it was found in higher amount in the low part of the lama-bordo system, that is, in the oldest plots.

The organic carbon was concentrated in the central part of the lama-bordo system; the bordos reduce the speed of the water flow and foster for materials in suspension to be deposited.

The soils from the left and right margins of the lama-bordo system have lower quality than those of the central part, which is explained by the incorporation of materials with scarce soil formation processes from zones neighboring the system. Arnhold S. Otieno, J. Onyango, T. Koellner, B. Huwe, and J. Soil properties along a gradient from hillslopes to the savanna plains in the Lambwe Valley, Kenya.

Soil and Tillage Research Blake, G. Bulk Density. Klute ed. Methods of soil analysis. Part 1. Physical and mineralogical methods. Madison, Wisconsin.

Bouyoucos, G. Hydrometer method improved for making particle size analysis of soil. Agronomy Journal. Bremner, J. Nitrogen availability indexes. Black et al. Methods of soil analysis, Part 2. Chemical and Microbiological Properties. Campbell, J. Spatial variability of soils. Annals of the Association of American Geographers. Ceddia, M. Vieira, A. Villela, L. Mota, L. Anjos, and D. Topography and spatial variability of soil physical properties.

Scientia Agricola 66 3

Methods of soil analysis. Part 2. Chemical and microbiological properties.

Skip to search form Skip to main content You are currently offline. Some features of the site may not work correctly. DOI: Part 2. Chemical and microbiological properties. Page Published Environmental Science.

Two biological and two chemical methods were tested to quantify the available N of two sewage sludges in two soils. Sewage sludges increased the quantified available N of soil according to the rate for any tested method. A significant correlation between available N determined by biological methods leaching and non-leaching incubation procedures was observed, while no significant correlation between chemical methods acidic hydrolysis and 2 N KCl extraction was reported. With the exclusion of the method based on acid hydrolysis, the other procedures were correlated significantly with the available N determined in field experiments. This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.

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Effectiveness of F-68 Soil Conditioner

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Material and Methods

Prosopis juliflora is one of the suitable tree species used as vegetation cover for sand dunes fixation. The objectives of this study were to determine the effect of P. We hypothesized that increasing the canopy coverage would result in higher soil C stocks and nutrient content. At each site, 15 soil samples were taken at two depths cm and cm. The results indicated a strong increase in the topsoil C stock from 0. Although, different canopy classes resulted in no significant differences in soil C stock, significant differences were observed for all the soil physico-chemical properties that were studied.

Two biological and two chemical methods were tested to quantify the available N of two sewage sludges in two soils. Sewage sludges increased the quantified available N of soil according to the rate for any tested method. A significant correlation between available N determined by biological methods leaching and non-leaching incubation procedures was observed, while no significant correlation between chemical methods acidic hydrolysis and 2 N KCl extraction was reported. With the exclusion of the method based on acid hydrolysis, the other procedures were correlated significantly with the available N determined in field experiments. Download to read the full article text. Andersson A On the determination of ecologically significant fractions of some heavy metals in soils.

Eurasian Journal of Soil Science. Zotero Mendeley EndNote. Soil samples used in this study were taken from surfaces cm of agricultural fields around Samsun, Northern Anatolia. The experiment was conducted according to split plot design with four doses of organic matterials 0, 2. After a month of mixing organic matterials into soils, lettuce were grown in the medias. It was observed that effectiveness of organic matterials changed depend on soil reaction, type and dose of organic matterials. All organic wastes were more effective on increment of bicarbonate extractable phosphate content in neutral soil pH when compared the other soil pH levels.

Bulletin William C. Print Friendly PDF.


Kenneth H.

Methods of Soil Analysis, Part 2—Chemical and Microbiological Properties, Agronomy Monograph 9, is the second edition and thus replaces.


Augusta F.

Sampling. A. L. PAGE, Editor: Methods of Soil Analysis, Part 2-Chemical and Microbiological Properties, Second Edition. Managing Editor, R. C. Dinauer.


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