countercurrent multiplier and exchanger ppt to pdf

Countercurrent Multiplier And Exchanger Ppt To Pdf

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25.6 Physiology of Urine Formation: Medullary Concentration Gradient

The countercurrent term comes from the fact that the descending and ascending loops are next to each other and their fluid flows in opposite directions countercurrent. The presence of aquaporin channels in the descending loop allows prodigious quantities of water to leave the loop and enter the hyperosmolar interstitium of the pyramid, where it is returned to the circulation by the vasa recta. As the loop turns to become the ascending loop, there is an absence of aquaporin channels, so water cannot leave the loop. In addition, collecting ducts have urea pumps that actively pump urea into the interstitial spaces. At the transition from the DCT to the collecting duct, about 20 percent of the original water is still present and about 10 percent of the sodium.

The normal kidney has tremendous capability to vary the relative proportions of solutes and water in the urine. The maximal concentrating ability of the kidney depends on how much urine volume must be excreted each day, to void the body of waste products of metabolism and ions that are ingested. A normal 70 kg human must excrete about mOsm of solute each day. When osmolarity of the body fluids increases above normal the posterior pituitary secretes more ADH. This increases the permeability of the distal tubule and collecting duct to water. So, more water is reabsorbed and concentrated urine is formed. When there is excess water and ECF osmolarity is reduced, ADH from posterior pituitary decreases, thereby reducing permeability of distal tubule and collecting duct to water causing dilute urine.

Copy embed code:. Automatically changes to Flash or non-Flash embed. WordPress Embed Customize Embed. URL: Copy. Presentation Description No description available. Patil Medical College PowerPoint Presentation: Definition Components Mechanism Factors Functions Other systems of counter current mechanism Applied aspects Definition : Definition A counter current system refers to a system in which the inflow runs parallel to, counter to, and in close proximity to the out flow for some distance. The counter current flow system is formed by U shaped tubules.

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The Henle's loops of these nephrons are thin and long and extend almost upto the tips of medullary papillae. The peritubular capillaries associated with these Henle's loops are also very thin and in the form of thin loops extending almost upto the tips of medullary papillae. A countercurrent can be defined as the flow of a fluid in opposite directions in the two arms of a U-tube if the arms are rather very close together. Thus, the Henle's loops of juxtamedullary nephrons and vasa recta are anatomically ideal for the operation of countercurrent mechanism. There are two aspects of this mechanism,. The Henle's loops play the role of contercurrent multipliers The vasa recta plays the role of countercurrent exchanger.

This passive process is known as countercurrent exchange. The concentration of urine is controlled by antidiuretic hormone, which helps the kidneys to. Slideshare uses cookies to improve functionality and performance, and to provide you with relevant advertising. If you continue browsing the site, you agree to the use of cookies on this website. See our User Agreement and Privacy Policy. See our Privacy Policy and User Agreement for details.

Doc: Counter Current Mechanism NEET Notes | EduRev

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To dry food, a heat exchanger is needed so that the flue gas can be separated from the clean warm air to protect the food from contamination by the smoke, soot and ash. An analytical procedurewas developed to analyze the thermal and hydraulic performance of the DPHE with and without ribbing. Direct heating and Indirect heating on one base so comparisons can be made easily. In general, the heat exchangers used in regeneration may be classified as either regenerators or recuperators. The plate heat exchanger consists of a thin, rectangular, metal sheet into which a corrugated has been formed by precision-pressing.

Kidneys filter blood in a three-step process. First, the nephrons filter blood that runs through the capillary network in the glomerulus. Almost all solutes, except for proteins, are filtered out into the glomerulus by a process called glomerular filtration. Second, the filtrate is collected in the renal tubules. Most of the solutes get reabsorbed in the PCT by a process called tubular reabsorption.

 Сэр… я не нахожу Клауса Шмидта в книге заказов, но, быть может, ваш брат хотел сохранить инкогнито, - наверное, дома его ждет жена? - Он непристойно захохотал. - Да, Клаус женат.

Urine: Concentration, Dilution & Formation | Excretory System | Biology

 - Ты полюбишь. Сьюзан не слышала ни единого слова. - Останься со мной, - увещевал ее голос.

 - Сядьте. Однако Беккер был слишком ошеломлен, чтобы понять смысл этих слов. - Sientate! - снова крикнул водитель. Беккер увидел в зеркале заднего вида разъяренное лицо, но словно оцепенел. Раздраженный водитель резко нажал на педаль тормоза, и Беккер почувствовал, как перемещается куда-то вес его тела. Он попробовал плюхнуться на заднее сиденье, но промахнулся. Тело его сначала оказалось в воздухе, а потом - на жестком полу.

На ВР последняя стенка напоминала тонюсенькую пленку. Вокруг нее было черно от нитей, готовых ринуться внутрь. Справа бесконечной чередой мелькали кадры, запечатлевшие последние минуты Танкадо: выражение отчаяния на его лице, вытянутую руку, кольцо, поблескивающее на солнце. Сьюзан смотрела на эти кадры, то выходившие из фокуса, то вновь обретавшие четкость. Она вглядывалась в глаза Танкадо - и видела в них раскаяние.


countercurrent multiplication could occur in the inner medulla without active countercurrent exchange by the vasa recta is imperfect and thus.


Understanding Heat Exchangers

Оба поспешили уйти. Камера снова показала Танкадо, его руку, упавшую на бездыханную грудь. Кольца на пальце уже не. ГЛАВА 118 - Это может служить доказательством, - решительно заявил Фонтейн.  - Танкадо избавился от кольца.

 - Меня осенило. Здесь шестнадцать групп по четыре знака в каждой. - О, ради Бога, - пробурчал себе под нос Джабба.

ГЛАВА 101 Дэвид Беккер никогда не держал в руках оружия. Сейчас ему пришлось это сделать. Скрюченное тело Халохота темнело на тускло освещенной лестнице Гиральды. Беккер прижал дуло к виску убийцы и осторожно наклонился.

Countercurrent multiplier and exchanger ppt to pdf

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