Philosophers And Their Contributions Pdf And Backgrounds
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Plato was a philosopher during the 5th century BCE. He was a student of Socrates and later taught Aristotle.
A prolific writer, lecturer, and polymath, Aristotle radically transformed most of the topics he investigated. In his lifetime, he wrote dialogues and as many as treatises, of which only 31 survive. These works are in the form of lecture notes and draft manuscripts never intended for general readership. Nevertheless, they are the earliest complete philosophical treatises we still possess. As the father of western logic, Aristotle was the first to develop a formal system for reasoning.
He observed that the deductive validity of any argument can be determined by its structure rather than its content, for example, in the syllogism: All men are mortal; Socrates is a man; therefore, Socrates is mortal. Even if the content of the argument were changed from being about Socrates to being about someone else, because of its structure, as long as the premises are true, then the conclusion must also be true.
In his natural philosophy, Aristotle combines logic with observation to make general, causal claims. For example, in his biology, Aristotle uses the concept of species to make empirical claims about the functions and behavior of individual animals. However, as revealed in his psychological works, Aristotle is no reductive materialist. Instead, he thinks of the body as the matter, and the psyche as the form of each living animal. Though his natural scientific work is firmly based on observation, Aristotle also recognizes the possibility of knowledge that is not empirical.
In his metaphysics, he claims that there must be a separate and unchanging being that is the source of all other beings. In his ethics, he holds that it is only by becoming excellent that one could achieve eudaimonia, a sort of happiness or blessedness that constitutes the best kind of human life.
At the age of seventeen, Aristotle migrated to Athens where he joined the Academy, studying under Plato for twenty years DL 5. During this period Aristotle acquired his encyclopedic knowledge of the philosophical tradition, which he draws on extensively in his works.
Aristotle left Athens around the time Plato died, in or B. Whatever the cause, Aristotle subsequently moved to Atarneus, which was ruled by another former student at the Academy, Hermias. During his three years there, Aristotle married Pythias, the niece or adopted daughter of Hermias, and perhaps engaged in negotiations or espionage on behalf of the Macedonians Chroust Whatever the case, the couple relocated to Macedonia, where Aristotle was employed by Philip, serving as tutor to his son, Alexander the Great DL 5.
After some time in Macedonia, Aristotle returned to Athens, where he founded his own school in rented buildings in the Lyceum. Indeed, this must have been necessary, since after his school had been in operation for thirteen years, he again departed from Athens, possibly because a charge of impiety was brought against him DL 5. He died at age 63 in Chalcis DL 5. Diogenes tells us that Aristotle was a thin man who dressed flashily, wearing a fashionable hairstyle and a number of rings.
If the will quoted by Diogenes 5. Before the invention of the printing press, handwritten copies of these works circulated in the Near East, northern Africa, and southern Europe for centuries.
The ancients blessedly say that the psyche pays penalty and that our life is for the atonement of great sins. And the yoking of the psyche to the body seems very much like this. For they say that, as Etruscans torture captives by chaining the dead face to face with the living, fitting each to each part, so the psyche seems to be stretched throughout, and constrained to all the sensitive members of the body.
Pistelli , According to this allegedly inspired theory, the fetters that bind the psyche to the body are similar to those by which the Etruscans torture their prisoners.
On this view, the psyche is embodied as a painful but corrective atonement for its badness. Some modern scholars have argued to the contrary that the imprisonment of the psyche in the body indicates that Aristotle was still a Platonist at the time he composed the Protrepticus , which must have been written earlier than his mature works Jaeger , But not all agree.
However, as Lachterman points out, such historical theses depend on substantive hermeneutical assumptions about how to read Aristotle and on theoretical assumptions about what constitutes a philosophical system.
Two other works— Rhetoric and Poetics —are not about logic, but also concern how to communicate to an audience. What is logic for Aristotle? On Interpretation begins with a discussion of meaning, according to which written words are symbols of spoken words, while spoken words are symbols of thoughts Int. This theory of signification can be understood as a semantics that explains how different alphabets can signify the same spoken language, while different languages can signify the same thoughts.
Moreover, this theory connects the meaning of symbols to logical consequence, since commitment to some set of utterances rationally requires commitment to the thoughts signified by those utterances and to what is entailed by them. In order for a written sentence, utterance, or thought to be true or false, Aristotle says, it must include at least two terms: a subject and a predicate. Aristotle holds that there are two kinds of constituents of meaningful sentences: nouns and their derivatives, which are conventional symbols without tense or aspect; and verbs, which have a tense and aspect.
Though all meaningful speech consists of combinations of these constituents, Aristotle limits logic to the consideration of statements, which assert or deny the presence of something in the past, present, or future Int. In every true predication, either the subject and predicate are of the same category, or the subject term refers to a substance while the predicate term refers to one of the other categories.
The primary substances are individuals, while secondary substances are species and genera composed of individuals Cat. This distinction between primary and secondary reflects a dependence relation: if all the individuals of a species or genus were annihilated, the species and genus could not, in the present tense, be truly predicated of any subject.
Every individual is of a species and that species is predicated of the individual. Every species is the member of a genus, which is predicated of the species and of each individual of that species Cat.
A specific difference is a predicate that falls under one of the categories. Thus, Aristotelian categories can be seen as a taxonomical scheme, a way of organizing predicates for discovery, or as a metaphysical doctrine about the kinds of beings there are.
Moreover, definitions are reached not by demonstration but by other kinds of inquiry, such as dialectic, the art by which one makes divisions in a genus; and induction, which can reveal specific differences from the observation of individual examples.
A syllogism is a discourse in which when taking some statements as premises a different statement can be shown to follow as a conclusion AnPr. The basic form of the Aristotelian syllogism involves a major premise, a minor premise, and a conclusion, so that it has the form. Though this form can be utilized in dialectic, in which the major term A is related to C through the middle term B credibly rather than necessarily AnPo.
These relationships are summed up in the traditional square of opposition used by medieval Aristotelian logicians. Syllogistic may be employed dialectically when the premises are accepted on the authority of common opinion, from tradition, or from the wise.
In any dialectical syllogism, the premises can be generally accepted opinions rather than necessary principles Top. At least some premises in rhetorical proofs must be not necessary but only probable, happening only for the most part. When the premises are known, and conclusions are shown to follow from those premises, one gains knowledge by demonstration. Demonstration is necessary AnPo.
One has demonstrative knowledge when one knows the premises and has derived a necessary conclusion from them, since the cause given in the premises explains why the conclusion is so AnPo. Consequently, valid demonstration depends on the known premises containing terms for the genus of which the species in the conclusion is a member AnPo.
By the principle of excluded middle, necessarily, either there will be a sea-battle tomorrow or there will not be a sea-battle tomorrow. But since the sea-battle itself has yet neither come about nor failed to come about, it seems that one must say, paradoxically, that one alternative is necessary but that either alternative might come about Int. For a discussion, see Malink Whenever a speaker reasons from premises, an auditor can ask for their demonstration.
The speaker then needs to adduce additional premises for that demonstration. But if this line of questioning went on interminably, no demonstration could be made, since every premise would require a further demonstration, ad infinitum. In order to stop an infinite regress of premises, Aristotle postulates that for an inference to count as demonstrative, one must know its indemonstrable premises AnPo. Thus, demonstrative science depends on the view that all teaching and learning proceed from already present knowledge AnPo.
In other words, the possibility of making a complete argument, whether inductive or deductive, depends on the reasoner possessing the concept in question. The acquisition of concepts must in some way be perceptual, since Aristotle says that universals come to rest in the soul through experience, which comes about from many memories of the same thing, which in turn comes about by perception AnPo.
As Cook Wilson , 45 puts it, perception is in a way already of a universal. The role of perception, and hence of memory and experience, is then not to supply the child with universal concepts but to fix the conditions under which they are correctly predicated of an individual or species.
While deduction proceeds by a form of syllogistic reasoning in which the major and minor premise both predicate what is necessarily true of a subject, inductive reasoning moves from particulars to universals, so it is impossible to gain knowledge of universals except by induction AnPo.
This movement, from the observation of the same occurrence, to an experience that emerges from many memories, to a universal judgment, is a cognitive process by which human beings understand reality see AnPo. But what makes such an inference a good one? Aristotle seems to say an inductive inference is sound when what is true in each case is also true of the class under which the cases fall AnPr. For example, it is inferred from the observation that each kind of bileless animal men, horses, mules, and so on is long-lived just when the following syllogism is sound: 1 All men, horses, mules, and so on are long-lived; 2 All long-lived animals are bileless; therefore 3 all men, horses, mules, and so on are bileless see Groarke sections 10 and However, Aristotle does not think that knowledge of universals is pieced together from knowledge of particulars but rather he thinks that induction is what allows one to actualize knowledge by grasping how the particular case falls under the universal AnPr.
A true definition reveals the essential nature of something, what it is to be that thing AnPo. A sound demonstration shows what is necessary of an observed subject AnPo.
It is essential, however, that the observation on which a definition is based be inductively true, that is, that it be based on causes rather than on chance. Regardless of whether one is asking what something is in a definition or why something is the way it is by giving its cause, it is only when the principles or starting points of a science are given that demonstration becomes possible.
Since experience is what gives the principles of each science AnPr. This is why logic, though it is employed in all branches of philosophy, is not a part of philosophy. Rather, in the Aristotelian tradition, logic is an instrument for the philosopher, just as a hammer and anvil are instruments for the blacksmith Ierodiakonou Just as dialectic searches for truth, Aristotelian rhetoric serves as its counterpart Rhet.
Thus, rhetorical demonstration, or enthymeme, is a kind of syllogism that strictly speaking belongs to dialectic Rhet. Because rhetoric uses the particularly human capacity of reason to formulate verbal arguments, it is the art that can cause the most harm when it is used wrongly. It is thus not a technique for persuasion at any cost, as some Sophists have taught, but a fundamentally second-personal way of using language that allows the auditor to reach a judgment Grimaldi , 3—5.
More fundamentally, rhetoric is defined as the detection of persuasive features of each subject matter Rhet. Proofs given in speech depend on three things: the character ethos of the speaker, the disposition pathos of the audience, and the meaning logos of the sounds and gestures used Rhet.
Rhetorical proofs show that the speaker is worthy of credence, producing an emotional state pathos in the audience, or demonstrating a consequence using the words alone. Aristotle holds that ethos is the most important of these elements, since trust in the speaker is required if one is to believe the speech.
However, the best speech balances ethos, pathos, and logos. In rhetoric, enthymemes play a deductive role, while examples play an inductive role Rhet. The deductive form of rhetoric, enthymeme, is a dialectical syllogism in which the probable premise is suppressed so that one reasons directly from the necessary premise to the conclusion. For example, one may reason that an animal has given birth because she has milk Rhet.
20 Major Philosophers & Their Big Ideas
Western philosophy refers to the philosophical thought and work of the Western world. Historically, the term refers to the philosophical thinking of Western culture , beginning with the ancient Greek philosophy of the pre-Socratics. The scope of ancient Western philosophy included the problems of philosophy as they are understood today; but it also included many other disciplines, such as pure mathematics and natural sciences such as physics , astronomy , and biology Aristotle , for example, wrote on all of these topics. The pre-Socratic philosophers were interested in cosmology ; the nature and origin of the universe, while rejecting mythical answers to such questions. The first recognized philosopher, Thales of Miletus born c. His use of observation and reason to derive this conclusion is the reason for distinguishing him as the first philosopher. Following both Thales and Anaximander, Anaximenes of Miletus claimed that air was the most suitable candidate.
Philosophy of music is the study of fundamental questions about the nature and value of music and our experience of it. However, unlike philosophy of science, say, the target of philosophy of music is a practice most people have a significant background in, merely as a result of being members of a musical culture. Thus, as with the central questions of metaphysics and epistemology, not only can most people quickly grasp the philosophical questions music raises, they tend to have thought about some of those questions before encountering the academic discipline itself. This is as good a place as any to note that I, like most in the English-speaking philosophical world, focus exclusively on Western musical traditions.
Socrates and Plato are two famous Greek philosophers whose ideas still impact society today. In ancient Greece, philosophers contemplated and theorized about many different ideas such as human nature, ethics , and moral dilemmas. Ancient Greek philosophers can be categorized into three groups: the Pre-Socratics, the Socratics, and the Post-Socratics.
The Greek philosopher Aristotle B. Aristotle was born in B. Both of his parents were members of traditional medical families, and his father, Nicomachus, served as court physician to King Amyntus III of Macedonia. At age 17 he was sent to Athens to enroll in Plato's Academy. When Plato died in , control of the Academy passed to his nephew Speusippus. He spent five years on the coast of Asia Minor as a guest of former students at Assos and Lesbos. It was here that he undertook his pioneering research into marine biology and married his wife Pythias, with whom he had his only daughter, also named Pythias.
Aristotle , Greek Aristoteles , born bce , Stagira, Chalcidice, Greece—died , Chalcis, Euboea , ancient Greek philosopher and scientist, one of the greatest intellectual figures of Western history. He was the author of a philosophical and scientific system that became the framework and vehicle for both Christian Scholasticism and medieval Islamic philosophy.
Хейл подтянул ноги и немного приподнялся на корточках, желая переменить позу. Он открыл рот, чтобы что-то сказать, но сделать этого не успел. Когда Хейл перестал на нее давить, Сьюзан почувствовала, что ее онемевшие ноги ожили.
- Червь… я знаю, на что он запрограммирован! - Она сунула распечатку Джаббе. - Я поняла это, сделав пробу системных функций. Мы выделили отдаваемые им команды - смотрите. Смотрите, на что он нацелен. Шеф систем безопасности прочитал текст и схватился за поручень.
Никому не позволено действовать в обход фильтров. - Ошибаешься, - возразила. - Я только что говорила с Джаббой. Он сказал, что в прошлом году сам установил переключатель. Личный помощник директора отказывался верить ее словам.