high yield microbiology and infectious diseases pdf

High Yield Microbiology And Infectious Diseases Pdf

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Cite This Article. Specific factors precipitating disease emergence can be identified in virtually all cases. These include ecological, environmental, or demographic factors that place people at increased contact with a previously unfamiliar microbe or its natural host or promote dissemination.

Microbiology High-Yield Topics

An infection is the invasion of an organism's body tissues by disease-causing agents , their multiplication, and the reaction of host tissues to the infectious agents and the toxins they produce. Infections can be caused by a wide range of pathogens, most prominently bacteria and viruses but also more unusual types.

Hosts can fight infections using their immune system. Mammalian hosts react to infections with an innate response, often involving inflammation , followed by an adaptive response.

Specific medications used to treat infections include antibiotics , antivirals , antifungals , antiprotozoals , and antihelminthics. Infectious diseases resulted in 9. Infections are caused by infectious agents pathogens including:. Symptomatic infections are apparent and clinical , whereas an infection that is active but does not produce noticeable symptoms may be called inapparent, silent, subclinical , or occult. An infection that is inactive or dormant is called a latent infection.

Some viral infections can also be latent, examples of latent viral infections are any of those from the Herpesviridae family. The word infection can denote any presence of a particular pathogen at all no matter how little but also is often used in a sense implying a clinically apparent infection in other words, a case of infectious disease.

Different terms are used to describe infections. The first is an acute infection. An acute infection is one in which symptoms develop rapidly; its course can either be rapid or protracted. A chronic infection is when symptoms develop gradually, over weeks or months, and are slow to resolve. A latent infection is a type of infection that may occur after an acute episode; the organism is present but symptoms are not; after time, the disease can reappear. A focal infection is defined as the initial site of infection from which organisms travel via the bloodstream to another area of the body.

Among the many varieties of microorganisms , relatively few cause disease in otherwise healthy individuals. The appearance and severity of disease resulting from any pathogen depend upon the ability of that pathogen to damage the host as well as the ability of the host to resist the pathogen.

However, a host's immune system can also cause damage to the host itself in an attempt to control the infection. Clinicians, therefore, classify infectious microorganisms or microbes according to the status of host defenses - either as primary pathogens or as opportunistic pathogens :.

Primary pathogens cause disease as a result of their presence or activity within the normal, healthy host, and their intrinsic virulence the severity of the disease they cause is, in part, a necessary consequence of their need to reproduce and spread. Many of the most common primary pathogens of humans only infect humans, however, many serious diseases are caused by organisms acquired from the environment or that infect non-human hosts.

Opportunistic pathogens can cause an infectious disease in a host with depressed resistance immunodeficiency or if they have unusual access to the inside of the body for example, via trauma. Opportunistic infection may be caused by microbes ordinarily in contact with the host, such as pathogenic bacteria or fungi in the gastrointestinal or the upper respiratory tract , and they may also result from otherwise innocuous microbes acquired from other hosts as in Clostridium difficile colitis or from the environment as a result of traumatic introduction as in surgical wound infections or compound fractures.

An opportunistic disease requires impairment of host defenses, which may occur as a result of genetic defects such as Chronic granulomatous disease , exposure to antimicrobial drugs or immunosuppressive chemicals as might occur following poisoning or cancer chemotherapy , exposure to ionizing radiation , or as a result of an infectious disease with immunosuppressive activity such as with measles , malaria or HIV disease.

Primary pathogens may also cause more severe disease in a host with depressed resistance than would normally occur in an immunosufficient host. While a primary infection can practically be viewed as the root cause of an individual's current health problem, a secondary infection is a sequela or complication of that root cause. For example, an infection due to a burn or penetrating trauma the root cause is a secondary infection.

Primary pathogens often cause primary infection and often cause secondary infection. Usually, opportunistic infections are viewed as secondary infections because immunodeficiency or injury was the predisposing factor. Other types of infection consist of mixed, iatrogenic, nosocomial, and community-acquired infection.

A mixed infection is an infection that is caused by two or more pathogens. An example of this is Appendicitis , which is caused by Bacteroides fragilis and Escherichia coli. The second is an iatrogenic infection. This type of infection is one that is transmitted from a health care worker to a patient.

A nosocomial infection is also one that occurs in a health care setting. Nosocomial infections are those that are acquired during a hospital stay. Lastly, a community-acquired infection is one in which the infection is acquired from a whole community. One manner of proving that a given disease is infectious, is to satisfy Koch's postulates first proposed by Robert Koch , which require that first, the infectious agent be identifiable only in patients who have the disease, and not in healthy controls, and second, that patients who contract the infectious agent also develop the disease.

These postulates were first used in the discovery that Mycobacteria species cause tuberculosis. However, Koch's postulates cannot usually be tested in modern practice for ethical reasons.

Proving them would require experimental infection of a healthy individual with a pathogen produced as a pure culture. Conversely, even clearly infectious diseases do not always meet the infectious criteria; for example, Treponema pallidum , the causative spirochete of syphilis , cannot be cultured in vitro — however the organism can be cultured in rabbit testes.

It is less clear that a pure culture comes from an animal source serving as host than it is when derived from microbes derived from plate culture. Epidemiology , or the study and analysis of who, why and where disease occurs, and what determines whether various populations have a disease, is another important tool used to understand infectious disease. Epidemiologists may determine differences among groups within a population, such as whether certain age groups have a greater or lesser rate of infection; whether groups living in different neighborhoods are more likely to be infected; and by other factors, such as gender and race.

Researchers also may assess whether a disease outbreak is sporadic, or just an occasional occurrence; endemic , with a steady level of regular cases occurring in a region; epidemic , with a fast arising, and unusually high number of cases in a region; or pandemic , which is a global epidemic.

If the cause of the infectious disease is unknown, epidemiology can be used to assist with tracking down the sources of infection. Infectious diseases are sometimes called contagious diseases when they are easily transmitted by contact with an ill person or their secretions e. Thus, a contagious disease is a subset of infectious disease that is especially infective or easily transmitted. Other types of infectious, transmissible, or communicable diseases with more specialized routes of infection, such as vector transmission or sexual transmission, are usually not regarded as "contagious", and often do not require medical isolation sometimes loosely called quarantine of victims.

However, this specialized connotation of the word "contagious" and "contagious disease" easy transmissibility is not always respected in popular use.

Infectious diseases are commonly transmitted from person to person through direct contact. The types of contact are through person to person and droplet spread. Indirect contact such as airborne transmission, contaminated objects, food and drinking water, animal person contact, animal reservoirs, insect bites, and environmental reservoirs are another way infectious diseases are transmitted.

Infections can be classified by the anatomic location or organ system infected, including:. In addition, locations of inflammation where infection is the most common cause include pneumonia , meningitis and salpingitis.

The symptoms of an infection depend on the type of disease. Some signs of infection affect the whole body generally, such as fatigue , loss of appetite, weight loss, fevers , night sweats, chills, aches and pains.

Others are specific to individual body parts, such as skin rashes , coughing , or a runny nose. In certain cases, infectious diseases may be asymptomatic for much or even all of their course in a given host. In the latter case, the disease may only be defined as a "disease" which by definition means an illness in hosts who secondarily become ill after contact with an asymptomatic carrier.

An infection is not synonymous with an infectious disease, as some infections do not cause illness in a host. As bacterial and viral infections can both cause the same kinds of symptoms, it can be difficult to distinguish which is the cause of a specific infection.

There is a general chain of events that applies to infections. Each of the links must be present in a chronological order for an infection to develop. Understanding these steps helps health care workers target the infection and prevent it from occurring in the first place. Infection begins when an organism successfully enters the body, grows and multiplies.

This is referred to as colonization. Most humans are not easily infected. Those with compromised or weakened immune systems have an increased susceptibility to chronic or persistent infections. Individuals who have a suppressed immune system are particularly susceptible to opportunistic infections.

Entrance to the host at host-pathogen interface , generally occurs through the mucosa in orifices like the oral cavity , nose, eyes, genitalia, anus, or the microbe can enter through open wounds. While a few organisms can grow at the initial site of entry, many migrate and cause systemic infection in different organs. Some pathogens grow within the host cells intracellular whereas others grow freely in bodily fluids.

Wound colonization refers to non-replicating microorganisms within the wound, while in infected wounds, replicating organisms exist and tissue is injured. An example of the former is the anaerobic bacteria species, which colonizes the mammalian colon , and an example of the latter are the various species of staphylococcus that exist on human skin.

Neither of these colonizations are considered infections. The difference between an infection and a colonization is often only a matter of circumstance. Non-pathogenic organisms can become pathogenic given specific conditions, and even the most virulent organism requires certain circumstances to cause a compromising infection.

Some colonizing bacteria, such as Corynebacteria sp. The variables involved in the outcome of a host becoming inoculated by a pathogen and the ultimate outcome include:. As an example, several staphylococcal species remain harmless on the skin, but, when present in a normally sterile space, such as in the capsule of a joint or the peritoneum , multiply without resistance and cause harm.

An interesting fact that gas chromatography—mass spectrometry , 16S ribosomal RNA analysis, omics , and other advanced technologies have made more apparent to humans in recent decades is that microbial colonization is very common even in environments that humans think of as being nearly sterile.

Because it is normal to have bacterial colonization, it is difficult to know which chronic wounds can be classified as infected and how much risk of progression exists. Despite the huge number of wounds seen in clinical practice, there are limited quality data for evaluated symptoms and signs.

A review of chronic wounds in the Journal of the American Medical Association's "Rational Clinical Examination Series" quantified the importance of increased pain as an indicator of infection.

Disease can arise if the host's protective immune mechanisms are compromised and the organism inflicts damage on the host. Microorganisms can cause tissue damage by releasing a variety of toxins or destructive enzymes. For example, Clostridium tetani releases a toxin that paralyzes muscles, and staphylococcus releases toxins that produce shock and sepsis.

Not all infectious agents cause disease in all hosts. The prion causing mad cow disease and Creutzfeldt—Jakob disease invariably kills all animals and people that are infected. Persistent infections occur because the body is unable to clear the organism after the initial infection.

Persistent infections are characterized by the continual presence of the infectious organism, often as latent infection with occasional recurrent relapses of active infection.

There are some viruses that can maintain a persistent infection by infecting different cells of the body. Some viruses once acquired never leave the body. A typical example is the herpes virus, which tends to hide in nerves and become reactivated when specific circumstances arise. Persistent infections cause millions of deaths globally each year.

Top and Best Microbiology Books

If your institution subscribes to this resource, and you don't have a MyAccess Profile, please contact your library's reference desk for information on how to gain access to this resource from off-campus. Please consult the latest official manual style if you have any questions regarding the format accuracy. This book is a concise review of the medically important aspects of microbiology and immunology. It covers both the basic and clinical aspects of bacteriology, virology, mycology, parasitology, and immunology. It also discusses important infectious diseases, using an organ system approach. Its two major aims are 1 to assist those who are preparing for the USMLE National Boards and 2 to provide students who are currently taking medical microbiology courses with a brief and up-to-date source of information. The goal is to provide the reader with an accurate source of clinically relevant information at a level appropriate for those beginning their medical education.

Comprehensive in scope, yet concise and easy to manage, Principles and Practice of Pediatric Infectious Diseases, 5th Edition , by Drs. Sarah Long, Charles Prober, and Marc Fischer, is your go-to resource for authoritative information on infectious diseases in children and adolescents. A veritable "who's who" of global authorities provides the practical knowledge you need to understand, diagnose, and manage almost any pediatric infectious disease you may encounter. Marc Fischer is a pediatric infectious disease specialist in Fort Collins, Colorado. He received his medical degree from Duke University School of Medicine and has been in practice for more than 20 years. We are always looking for ways to improve customer experience on Elsevier.

Brown: MCQs in Pathology. Practice tests and review questions are customized so that your students will see questions of appropriate difficulty. About the Medical Assistant Test. The following forms are useful for the protection and improvement of the health and safety of the people of Connecticut. So our school is making us write the NBME as our final exam, and I was wondering if anybody here has taken it?

Principles and Practice of Pediatric Infectious Diseases

Topics with the highest number of questions. Opportunistic Mycoses. Mycobacterium Tuberculosis. Hepatitis B Virus.

Here are some of the top, nice and good microbiology books which we can study to get the basics as well as some advanced knowledge of systemic and diagnostic microbiology. I have compiled some of the best books available in the market. They are all really good. Disclosure: This post includes affiliate links, meaning I get a commission if you make a purchase through my links, at no cost to you. As an Amazon Associate I earn from qualifying purchases.

Top and Best Microbiology Books

Emerging and Re-emerging Viral Infections

Barth Reller, Melvin P. Weinstein, Gary W. The anatomic pathologist performs an important role in the diagnosis or exclusion of infectious diseases. The morphologic interpretation of biopsies and cytologic preparations allows for the definitive establishment or exclusion of a wide variety of diseases.

An infection is the invasion of an organism's body tissues by disease-causing agents , their multiplication, and the reaction of host tissues to the infectious agents and the toxins they produce. Infections can be caused by a wide range of pathogens, most prominently bacteria and viruses but also more unusual types. Hosts can fight infections using their immune system.


Buy High-Yield Microbiology and Infectious Diseases 2nd edition (​) by Louise Hawley for up to 90% off at rachaeldohertyfoundation.org


 Двухцветный, - прошипел панк, словно вынося приговор. - Двухцветный? - изумился Беккер.  - Попробую отгадать… из-за прически. - Верно, Шерлок Холмс.

Он посмотрел на Сьюзан, стоявшую рядом с ним на платформе. Казалось, все происходящее было от нее безумно. Джабба вздохнул и снова вытер пот со лба.

Остальные - все, что внизу. Мы ищем различие, выражаемое простым числом.

Вернувшись к терминалу Хейла, Сьюзан приступила к линейному поиску. Четвертая попытка тоже не дала результата. - Пока не везет.  - Она вздохнула.  - Быть может, придется ждать, пока Дэвид не найдет копию Танкадо.

Шлюзы открылись - в Интернет хлынула публика. К началу 1990-х годов некогда тщательно охраняемый правительством Интернет превратился в перенаселенное пространство, заполненное общедоступными почтовыми серверами и порнографическими сайтами. Вскоре после не получившего огласки, но причинившего колоссальный ущерб государственной безопасности проникновения в базы данных Военно-морского флота стало абсолютно очевидно, что секретная информация, хранящаяся на компьютерах, подключенных к Интернету, перестала быть тайной.

 Лжец! - выкрикнула Сьюзан.  - Я видела твою электронную почту.

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