class 10 chemistry carbon and its compounds notes cbse pdf

Class 10 Chemistry Carbon And Its Compounds Notes Cbse Pdf

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Carbon form covalent bonds.

Covalent Bond: The atomic number of carbon is 6. Its electronic configuration is 2, 4. It requires, 4 electrons to achieve the inert gas electronic configuration. But carbon cannot form an ionic bond.

CBSE Class 10 Chemistry, Carbon and its Compounds

Covalent Bond: The atomic number of carbon is 6. Its electronic configuration is 2, 4. It requires, 4 electrons to achieve the inert gas electronic configuration. But carbon cannot form an ionic bond. It could gain four electrons forming C 4- cation. But it would be difficult for the nucleus with six protons to hold on to ten electrons.

But it requires a large amount of energy to remove four electrons. Thus, carbon overcomes this problem by sharing of its valence electrons with other carbon atoms or with atoms of other elements.

The bond formed by mutual sharing of electron pairs between two atoms in a molecule is known as Covalent Bond. Electron Dot Structure: The electron dot structures provides a picture of bonding in molecules in terms of the shared pairs of electrons and octet rule. Physical Properties of Organic Compounds Most of the organic compounds have low boiling and melting point, due to the weak force of attraction i.

Most carbon compounds are poor conductors of electricity, due to the absence of free electrons and free ions. Allotropes of Carbon Allotropy: The phenomenon in which the element exists in two or more different physical states with similar chemical properties are called Allotropy.

Versatile nature of Carbon, Hydrocarbons, Isomerism, Homologous series, Functional groups, Nomenclature of functional groups. Versatile Nature of Carbon: The existence of such a large number of organic compounds is due to the following nature of carbon,. This property is due to.

Carbon can also form stable multiple bonds double or triple with itself and with the atoms of other elements. Straight Chain Branched Chain Rings. It is capable of bonding with four other atoms of carbon or some other heteroatoms with single covalent bond as well as double or triple bond.

Hydrocarbons: Compounds of carbon and hydrogen are known as hydrocarbons. In this, the carbon atoms are connected by only a single bond. In this, the two carbon atoms are connected by double bond. In this, the two carbon atoms are connected by triple bond.

Electron Dot Structure of Hydrocarbons. Isomerism: Compounds having the same molecular formula but different structural formula and properties are known as Isomers and this phenomenon is known as Isomerism. Structural Isomerism: Compounds having the same molecular formula but different structures are called Structural isomers. Example: Isomers of butane C 4 H Homologous Series: Series of organic compounds having the same functional group and chemical properties and successive members differ by a CH 2 unit or 14 mass units are known as Homologous series.

Homologous series of Alkanes, Alkenes and Alkynes. Functional Group: An atom or group of atoms present in a molecule which largely determines its chemical properties are called Functional Group. Nomenclature of Organic Compounds: It is difficult to remember millions of compounds by their individual common name. Identify the Number of Carbon Atoms in the Compound. Chemical Properties of Carbon Compounds: The important chemical properties are as follows: 1. Combustion: The complete combustion of carbon compounds in the air gives carbon dioxide water, heat and light.

Carbon burns in air or oxygen to give carbon dioxide and heat and light. Saturated hydrocarbons burn with a blue flame in the presence of a sufficient supply of air or oxygen. The gas and kerosene stove used at home has inlet for air so that, burnt to given clean blue flame. Due to presence of small amount of nitrogen and sulphur, coal and petroleum produces carbon dioxide with oxides of nitrogen and sulphur which are major pollutant.

Oxidation: Oxidation of ethanol in presence of oxidizing agents gives ethanoic acid. Oxidizing Agent: Some substances are capable of adding oxygen to others, are known as Oxidising Agent. Addition Reaction: Addition of dihydrogen with unsaturated hydrocarbon in the presence of catalysts such as nickel or platinum or palladium are known as Hydrogenation addition reaction.

Catalyst: Substances that cause a reaction to occur or proceeds to different rate without consuming in it are called a catalyst.

For example; Ni, Pt, Pd, etc. Process of converting vegetable oil into solid fat vegetable ghee is called Hydrogenation of Oil. Substitution Reaction: Replacement of one or more hydrogen atom of an organic molecule by another atom or group of the atom is known as Substitution Reaction.

Physical Properties. Dehydrating agent: Substances which removes water from ethanol alcohols is known as Dehydrating agent. For example; Cone. Uses: As solvent, as antiseptic tincture iodine , as anti-freeze in automobiles. The melting point of pure ethanoic acid is K and hence, it often freezes in cold climate so named as glacial acetic acid. Chemical Properties i Esterification Reaction: Reaction of ethanoic acid with an alcohol in the presence of a few drops of conc.

H 2 SO 4 as catalyst gives a sweet-smelling substance known as Esters, called Esterification reaction. Esters are used in making perfumes and flavouring agents. Saponification Reaction: Reaction of esters with sodium hydroxide, gives alcohol and sodium salt of carboxylic acid soap.

This reaction is known as Saponification Reaction. Soap: Sodium or potassium salts of long chain fatty acids is called Soap. Detergent: Ammonium and sulphonate salts of long chain fatty acids are called Detergent.

Hard and Soft Water: Water that does not produce lather with soap readily is called Hard water and which produces lather with soap is called Soft Water. Hardness of water is due to the presence of bicarbonates, chlorides and sulphate salt of calcium and magnesium. Advantage of Detergents: The main advantage of detergent over soaps is that soaps cannot be used in hard water for washing because hard water reacts with soap to form curdy white precipitate called Scum.

Thus, in hard water, soap does not give lather while detergent does. Cleansing Action of Soaps and Detergents: Both soaps and detergents cantains two parts. A long hydrocarbon part which is hydrophobic water repelling in nature and a short ionic part which is hydrophillic water attracting in nature. The hydrocarbon part of the soap molecule links itself to the oily dirt drop and ionic end orients itself towards water and forms a spherical structure called micelles.

The soap micelles helps in dissolving the dirt in water and wash our clothes. Covalent Bond: A chemical bond formed between two atoms by sharing of valence electrons between two atoms so that each atom acquires the stable electronic configuration of the nearest noble gas.

Carbon always forms a covalent bond: Atomic no of carbon is 6. So, its configuration is K-2, L Therefore, it should either lose or gain 4 electrons to achieve the noble gas configuration and become stable. However, it is difficult for carbon to gain or lose four electrons because of the following reasons:. Tetravalency of Carbon: A carbon atom has four electrons in the valence shell. Therefore, carbon forms four covalent bonds, i. Allotropic forms of Carbon: The phenomenon of existence of an element in two or more forms which have different physical properties but identical chemical properties is called allotropy.

Three allotropic forms of carbon:. Saturated Compound: Compounds of carbon which have only single bonds between the carbon atoms are called saturated compounds e. Unsaturated Compound: Compounds of carbon which contain one or more double or triple bonds between carbon atoms are called unsaturated compounds e. Homologous series: A family of organic compounds having the same functional group, similar chemical properties and the successive adjacent members differ by a CH 2 unit or 14 mass unit.

Characteristics of a homologous series: All the members of a homologous series can be represented by a general formula. The molecular formula of two successive adjacent members of a homologous series differs by a CH 2 unit. The molecular masses of any two successive members of a homologous series differ by 14 u.

All the members of a given homologous series have the same functional group. All the members of a series show similar chemical properties.

The members of a homologous series show a gradation in physical properties. This was done to maintain uniformity throughout the world. The rules for nomenclature are as follows: i Identify the number of carbon atoms in the carbon compound. Name the carbon compounds according to the number of carbon atoms. Example, Saturated hydrocarbon having one carbon atom is named as Methane.

Saturated hydrocarbon having two carbon atoms is named as Ethane. Then write the name of the parent compound:. Cleansing action of soap: The dirt is generally held to the surface of a dirty cloth by a thin film of oil or grease. When a dirty cloth is treated with soap or detergent solution, the non- polar tail of the soap or the detergent dissolve in oil or grease while the polar heads are held by the surrounding water.

Soap or detergent micelle is formed with the oily or greasy dirt lying at their Centre Soap or detergent is attracted both by the greasy dirt and water. When the surface of the cloth is mechanically scrubbed or beaten on a stone or with a wooden paddle or agitated in a washing machine, the loosened oily particle is removed from the dirty surface and the cloth is cleaned.

Detergents lower the surface tension of water to a greater extent than soap, therefore the cleansing action of detergent is much higher than those of soaps.

In spite of its small amount available in nature, carbon is a versatile element as it forms the basis for all living organisms and many things which we use. Allotropes of carbon: The phenomenon by means of which an element can exist in two or more forms, with similar chemical properties but different physical properties are called allotropy and the different forms are called allotropes. Carbon shows three allotropic forms : Note:. Fullerenes: A new category of carbon allotrope, fullerenes are spherical in shape or a soccer ball like.

The first fullerene identified was C with 60 carbon atoms arranged like the geodesic dome designed by US architect, Buckminster Fuller, hence these are also known as Buckminster Fullerenes or Bucky Ball structures.

Carbon and its Compounds Ncert Notes for class 10 Download pdf

Notes for Carbon and Its compounds Class 10 have been prepared by our experienced teachers as per the latest NCERT syllabus and available on our official website and app to download in PDF format for free. All the essential topics of carbon and its compound are covered in detail in Class 10 Chapter 4 Science notes with eye-catching graphical representation and examples. Students can refer to Chapter 4 Science Class 10 notes just before exams to refresh their memory and recall important equations without any strain or panic. Carbon and its compounds is an introductory chapter, the first step of organic Chemistry. It demonstrates the covalent bonding of carbon compounds, the integrity of the carbon and the allotropes of the carbon atoms.

Revision is one of the most important aspects of learning as it helps you to remember facts, figures, and topics that you have covered earlier. Students are always advised to summarize whatever they have learned as Revision Notes. Carbon is capable of forming many allotropes due to its valency. Well-known forms of carbon include diamond and graphite. Diamond: Diamond is a well-known allotrope of carbon. The hardness and high dispersion of light of diamond makes it useful for both industrial applications and jewelry. Diamond is the hardest known natural mineral.

CBSE Class 10 Science Notes Chapter 4 Carbon and its Compounds Pdf free download is part of Class 10 Science Notes for Quick Revision.

CBSE Class 10 Science Chapter 4 – Carbon and Its Compounds Revision Notes

Properties of Covalent Bonds. Two important properties which enable carbon to form enormously large number of compounds. Like carbon, silicon forms compounds with hydrogen upto seven or eight atoms of silicon called silanes. Since it requires four electrons, carbon is said to be tetravalent. The smaller size of carbon atom enables nucleus to hold the shared pair of electrons strongly, thus carbon compounds are very stable in general.

These notes are based on the revised syllabus. These notes have been prepared according to the revised syllabus. Topics excluded from the reduced syllabus have not been covered in these revision notes. You may also solve the questions given at the end of the notes for self-assessment. Covalent Bond: The bond formed by mutual sharing of electron pairs between two atoms in a molecule is known as Covalent Bond.

These notes are prepared by our panel of highly experienced teachers keeping in mind the level of preparation needed by the students to prepare for Class 10 board exams. Carbon and Its Compounds Class 10 Notes aims at easing out your learning and revision process. Compounds having carbon atoms among the components are known as carbon compounds. Previously, carbon compounds could only be obtained from a living source; hence they are also known as organic compounds. Bond formed by sharing of electrons is called covalent bond.

Carbon And Its Compounds Class 10 Handwritten Notes PDF

Properties of Covalent Bonds. Two important properties which enable carbon to form enormously large number of compounds. Like carbon, silicon forms compounds with hydrogen upto seven or eight atoms of silicon called silanes. Since it requires four electrons, carbon is said to be tetravalent.

SelfStudys provides chapter-wise Science Revision Notes and short key notes for the CBSE board examination in free downloadable PDF format so students can practice it for their studies and get better in their board examinations. These core subjects can be very difficult for students and the revision notes for every chapter will enable them to have a skilful studying pattern with which they can achieve so much better and also enjoy studying the subject. Last-minute revision is never easy. They provide students with an additional edge and help boost confidence before appearing for their examinations.

Акт безжалостного уничтожения. Бесчувственная демонстрация силы страной, уже добившейся победы. С этим Танкадо сумел примириться. Но он не смог примириться с тем, что этот взрыв лишил его возможности познакомиться с собственной матерью.

Вылезай скорее! - послышался женский голос. Мидж все же его разыскала. Он застонал. - Джабба.

Стратмор кивнул: - Тогда мы смогли бы подменить интернетовский файл, который Танкадо собирается выбросить на рынок, нашей измененной версией. Поскольку Цифровая крепость - это японский код, никто никогда не заподозрит, что наше агентство имеет к нему отношение.


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